Donald R. Shaffer

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Recent clinical trials showed that targeting of inhibitory receptors on T cells induces durable responses in a subset of cancer patients, despite advanced disease. However, the regulatory switches controlling T-cell function in immunosuppressive tumours are not well understood. Here we show that such inhibitory mechanisms can be systematically discovered in(More)
Targeted T cells are emerging as effective non-toxic therapies for cancer. Multiple elements, however, contribute to the overall pathogenesis of cancer through both distinct and redundant mechanisms. Hence, targeting multiple cancer-specific markers simultaneously could result in better therapeutic efficacy. We created a functional chimeric antigen(More)
Cancer cells can live and grow if they succeed in creating a favorable niche that often includes elements from the immune system. While T lymphocytes play an important role in the host response to tumor growth, the mechanism of their trafficking to the tumor remains poorly understood. We show here that T lymphocytes consistently infiltrate the primary brain(More)
Article is made available in accordance with the publisher's policy and may be subject to US copyright law. Please refer to the publisher's site for terms of use. The MIT Faculty has made this article openly available. Please share how this access benefits you. Your story matters. Recent work has shown that cytotoxic T cells play a central role in(More)
Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are increasingly being used in clinical trials to treat a variety of malignant conditions and recent results with CD19-specific CARs showing complete tumor regressions has sparked the interest of researchers and the public alike. Traditional CARs have been generated using single-chain variable fragments (scFv), often(More)
The primary antigen-specific antibody response of various strains of mice to TEPC-15/PnC immune complexes has been examined. We found that both BALB/c and C3H mice were good responders to the PnC antigen; however, C3H mice were low responders, whereas BALB/c mice were high responders to the TEPC-15/PnC complexes. Using congenic strains on the C3H and BALB/c(More)
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