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Carpal instability is usually diagnosed by abnormal two-plane radiographic angles. These angles are often unreliable. A method that eliminates interpretation of overlapping shadows and uses all of the carpal geometry should improve clinical diagnoses. The digital data from computed tomography scans can be manipulated to describe the carpal orientation in(More)
The degree of elevation and the duration of induced fever following endotoxin treatment of pregnant golden hamsters were examined. A radiothermistor was surgically implanted in the abdomen of each animal on day 6 of pregnancy. The animals were intravenously treated with a bolus injection of saline or endotoxin (1, 10, 20, or 200 micrograms/kg) on the(More)
BACKGROUND Cartilage canals are perichondral invaginations of blood vessels and connective tissue that are found within the epiphyses of most mammalian long bones. Functionally, they provide a means of transport of nutrients to the hyaline cartilage, a mechanism for removal of metabolic wastes, and a conduit for stem cells that are capable of initiating and(More)
The effects of a large arteriovenous fistula on left and right ventricular hemodynamics and cardiac myocyte size were examined in adult rats at 1 week and 1 month after surgery. Cardiac output, left ventricular function, and right ventricular function were evaluated before obtaining isolated myocytes for cell size measurements. Average heart weight(More)
Regional changes in hemodynamics and cardiac myocyte size were examined in adult rats 5 months after creating a large aortocaval fistula. At that time, cardiac output, left and right ventricular pressures, and left and right ventricular dP/dtmax were measured. Subsequently, isolated cardiac myocytes were collected from the left ventricle, right ventricle,(More)
Structural changes in the heart associated with chronic volume overloading have not been adequately documented. In anesthetized adult rats, microsurgical techniques were used to produce two types of arteriovenous shunts. The end of a femoral artery was connected to the side of a femoral vein to produce a femoral shunt. Aortocaval fistulas were produced by(More)
The computed carpal models from digital computed tomography (CT) data obtained in this study compare favorably to natural anatomy. A new application of algebraic analysis of this data provides mathematical markers from which to calculate the position and orientation of each carpal bone. When the origin of the spatial coordinates of a carpal bone is(More)
The computed tomography scans of both the injured and the normal wrists of nine patients with a scaphoid nonunion of 5 to 120 months' duration were used to create three-dimensional computer models. When the computer images of the normal and the contralateral fractured scaphoids were superimposed, it was possible to calculate the volume of bone that was lost(More)
Sirenomelia, a fusion of the lower extremities, is believed to result from a median, bilateral symmetric defect of the caudal portion of the embryo at a very early stage in development. Anomalies of the gastrointestinal and urogenital systems are commonly associated with this malformation. Sirenomelia is not an embryo-lethal condition but typically is(More)