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High levels of familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)-linked SOD1 mutants G93A and G37R were previously shown to mediate disease in mice through an acquired toxic property. We report here that even low levels of another mutant, G85R, cause motor neuron disease characterized by an extremely rapid clinical progression, without changes in SOD1 activity.(More)
Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause a subset of cases of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Four lines of mice accumulating one of these mutant proteins (G37R) develop severe, progressive motor neuron disease. At lower levels of mutant accumulation, pathology is restricted to lower motor neurons, whereas higher levels cause more severe(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited, neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a glutamine repeat in the N-terminus of the huntingtin protein. To gain insight into the pathogenesis of HD, we generated transgenic mice that express a cDNA encoding an N-terminal fragment (171 amino acids) of huntingtin with 82, 44 or 18 glutamines. Mice(More)
Missense mutations in two related genes, termed presenilin 1 (PS1) and presenilin 2 (PS2), cause dementia in a subset of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) pedigrees. In a variety of experimental in vitro and in vivo settings, FAD-linked presenilin variants influence the processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), leading to elevated(More)
Mutations in the presenilin 1 (PS1) and presenilin 2 genes cosegregate with the majority of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) pedigrees. We now document that the Abeta1-42(43)/Abeta1-40 ratio in the conditioned media of independent N2a cell lines expressing three FAD-linked PS1 variants is uniformly elevated relative to cells expressing similar(More)
mRNAs encoding five genetically distinct muscarinic ACh receptors are present in the CNS. Because of their pharmacological similarities, it has not been possible to detect the individual encoded proteins; thus, their physiological functions are not well defined. To characterize the family of proteins, a panel of subtype-selective antibodies was generated(More)
The majority of early-onset cases of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) are linked to mutations in two related genes, PS1 and PS2, located on chromosome 14 and 1, respectively. Using two highly specific antibodies against nonoverlapping epitopes of the PS1-encoded polypeptide, termed presenilin 1 (PS1), we document that the preponderant PS1-related species(More)
The neurotrophins nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) act upon populations of neurons that express specific receptors. The present study demonstrates that BDNF rescues motor neurons from degeneration and may also play a role in the normal physiology of these cells. BDNF is expressed in the local(More)
Recent evidence indicates that the nucleus basalis of Meynert, a distinct population of basal forebrain neurons, is a major source of cholinergic innervation of the cerebral cortex. Postmortem studies have previously demonstrated profound reduction in the presynaptic markers for cholinergic neurons in the cortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease and(More)