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Airway collapse and reopening due to mechanical ventilation exerts mechanical stress on airway walls and injures surfactant-compromised lungs. The reopening of a collapsed airway was modeled experimentally and computationally by the progression of a semi-infinite bubble in a narrow fluid-occluded channel. The extent of injury caused by bubble progression to(More)
We studied airway opening in a benchtop model intended to mimic bronchial walls held in apposition by airway lining fluid. We measured the relationship between the airway opening velocity (U) and the applied airway opening pressure in thin-walled polyethylene tubes of different radii (R) using lining fluids of different surface tensions (gamma) and(More)
A lung-protective ventilator strategy significantly reduces mortality in patients with acute lung injury. Substantial progress has been made in understanding how mechanical stress can injure the lung, both in terms of alterations in barrier properties of the pulmonary endothelium and epithelium as well as in stimulating proinflammatory responses of(More)
In a previous modeling study, we predicted that the yield pressure for airway reopening (Pyield) should depend on airway fluid surface tension (gamma) and airway radius (R), according to the relationship Pyield = 8.3 gamma/R. To test this prediction, we studied tantalum bronchograms of isolated perfused rat lungs from three rats by using microfocal X-ray(More)
We predict the amplification of mechanical stress, force, and torque on an adherent cell due to flow within a narrow microchannel. We model this system as a semicircular bulge on a microchannel wall, with pressure-driven flow. This two-dimensional model is solved computationally by the boundary element method. Algebraic expressions are developed by using(More)
The reduction of tidal volume during mechanical ventilation has been shown to reduce mortality of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, but epithelial cell injury can still result from mechanical stresses imposed by the opening of occluded airways. To study these stresses, a fluid-filled parallel-plate flow chamber lined with epithelial cells(More)
The delicate structure of the lung epithelium makes it susceptible to surface tension induced injury. For example, the cyclic reopening of collapsed and/or fluid-filled airways during the ventilation of injured lungs generates hydrodynamic forces that further damage the epithelium and exacerbate lung injury. The interactions responsible for epithelial(More)
In this study, our goal is to identify the interaction between airway lining fluid viscous and surface forces and parenchymal tethering forces during pulmonary airway reopening. The type of closure we modeled occurs when the airway walls and surrounding parenchyma collapse and are held in apposition by the lining fluid. We mimicked this system with a(More)
Presents an overview of leading areas of discovery in bio-fluid mechanics related to the pulmonary system, with particular reference to the airways. Areas briefly reviewed include airway gas dynamics, impedance studies, collapsible-tube studies, and airway liquid studies. Emphasis is placed on promising further directions, such as analysis of interacting(More)
We developed an essentially two-dimensional planar benchtop model of an untethered collapsed airway to investigate the influence of fluid properties (viscosity, mu and surface tension, gamma) and the structural characteristics (effective diameter, D, longitudinal tension, T, and fluid film thickness, H) on airway reopening. This simplified model was used to(More)