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Recent research has provided mechanistic insight into the important contributions of the gut microbiota to vertebrate biology, but questions remain about the evolutionary processes that have shaped this symbiosis. In the present study, we showed in experiments with gnotobiotic mice that the evolution of Lactobacillus reuteri with rodents resulted in the(More)
This article investigates one important strand in the evolution of today's high-frequency trading or HFT (the fast, automated trading of large numbers of financial securities). That strand is the history of the automation of trading on what has become the world's most prominent futures exchange, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange or Merc. The process of the(More)
This article reviews the history of the use of computers to automate mathematical proofs. It identifies three broad strands of work: automatic theorem proving where the aim is to simulate human processes of deduction; automatic theorem proving where any resemblance to how humans deduce is considered to be irrelevant; and interactive theorem proving, where(More)
The characterization of industrial yeast strains by examining their metabolic footprints (exometabolomes) was investigated and compared to genome-based discriminatory methods. A group of nine industrial brewing yeasts was studied by comparing their metabolic footprints, genetic fingerprints and comparative genomic hybridization profiles. Metabolic(More)
To avoid detrimental interactions with intestinal microbes, the human epithelium is covered with a protective mucus layer that traps host defence molecules. Microbial properties such as adhesion to mucus further result in a unique mucosal microbiota with a great potential to interact with the host. As mucosal microbes are difficult to study in vivo, we(More)
Ten medically important Saccharomyces strains, comprising six clinical isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and four probiotic strains of Saccharomyces boulardii, were characterized at the genetic and metabolic level and compared with non-medical, commercial yeast strains used in baking and wine-making. Strains were compared by genetic fingerprinting using(More)
A distinctive concern in the U.S. military for computer security dates from the emergence of time-sharing systems in the 1960s. This paper traces the subsequent development of the idea of a " security kernel " and of the mathematical modeling of security, focusing in particular on the paradigmatic Bell– LaPadula model. The paper examines the connections(More)