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During training sessions, pigeons were successively exposed to compounds consisting of a white triangle on a red background and a white circle on a green background. Key pecking intermittently produced grain reinforcers in the presence of one form-color compound. Once key pecking was confined to the compound associated with reinforcement, the elements-red,(More)
Rats received 2 daily sessions in a large clear chamber. A lever was mounted on each of the 4 chamber walls. For each rat, a different lever provided food during 0930 and 1530 sessions. The rats learned which lever would provide food at 0930 and 1530. Probe tests suggested that the rats learned to press 1 lever during their 1st session of each day and to(More)
The delayed-matching-to-sample procedure was modified to study pigeons' spatial memory. Nine pecking keys, arranged as a three-by-three matrix, served as the spatial cues. Trials began with a brief "ready" stimulus (dimming of the houselight). Then a randomly chosen key was lit briefly as a sample. After a short delay the sample key was lit again along(More)
Gallistel (1990) theorized that when animals encounter a biologically significant event, they automatically form a tripartite code consisting of the time, place, and nature of the event. Recent research examining such time-place learning (TPL) has shown that rats are reluctant to perform TPL tasks and appear to do so only under high-response-cost situations(More)
The efficacy of synaptic transmission from the perforant path (PP) to the granule cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of freely moving rats was monitored electrophysiologically over the course of training in an appetitively motivated, discriminated operant paradigm. Every day, 22 hr after behavioral sessions, evoked potentials were recorded from the DG(More)
The hypothesis that dopamine (DA) receptor agonists and antagonists affect "hedonia" associated with natural rewards was tested, using a psychophysical procedure previously shown to be sensitive to both the sweetness of food and the motivational state of rats. Rats were first trained to discriminate between two different quantities of a rewarding stimulus(More)
In Experiment 1, rats living in chambers containing bedding material were injected with a toxicosis-producing dose of lithium chloride shortly after their initial taste of sweetened condensed milk. They consumed no additional milk and used the bedding to bury the spout through which the milk had been delivered, although they did not bury a concurrently(More)
In Experiment 1 six hungry gerbils received six trials per day on a 17-arm radial maze. During each trial the subjects were allowed to choose freely among the arms, each of which contained a food pellet, until each arm had been visited once or until eight minutes had elapsed. An error was recorded when the subject entered a previously visited arm. The(More)
The present experiments investigated the effects of pregnancy on performance in the Morris water maze and on hippocampal volume. In the first study, pregnant rats (in between the first and second trimester) outperformed nonpregnant rats on the Morris water maze on 1 day of testing. In the second study, rats were tested in a working memory variation of the(More)
Rats' ability to discriminate their hormonal states was examined by observing the effects of ovarian steroids on state-dependent learning using a drug discrimination task. A rat's entry into the correct arm (left or right) of a Y-maze terminated mild foot shock. The arm designated as correct was alternated daily, but was consistently paired with a pretrial(More)