Donald M. Lloyd‐Jones

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BACKGROUND Ten-year and lifetime cardiovascular risk assessment algorithms have been adopted into atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) prevention guidelines, but these prediction models are not based on South Asian populations and may underestimate the risk in Indians, Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, Nepali, and Sri Lankans in the United States. Little(More)
BACKGROUND Nationally representative data evaluating recent trends and future projections of vascular risk factor treatment and control rates in secondary prevention of ischemic heart disease are sparse. METHODS AND RESULTS We evaluated sex- and race-stratified cholesterol, blood pressure, and hemoglobin A1c levels and risk factor treatment and control(More)
BACKGROUND Cross-sectional clustering of metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease in middle-aged adults is well described, but less is known regarding the order in which risk factors develop through young adulthood and their relation to subclinical atherosclerosis. METHOD AND RESULTS A total of 3178 black and white women and men in the Coronary(More)
BACKGROUND The association between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and coronary heart disease (CHD) events is not well described in individuals with very high levels of HDL-C (>80 mg/dL). METHODS AND RESULTS Using pooled data from 6 community-based cohorts we examined CHD and total mortality risks across a broad range of HDL-C, including(More)
BACKGROUND Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a leading cause of death in the United States and often occurs without previous cardiac symptoms. Lifetime risk for SCD and the influence of established risk factors on lifetime risks for SCD have not been estimated previously. METHODS AND RESULTS We followed Framingham Heart Study participants who were free of(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical studies implicate trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO; a gut microbiota-dependent nutrient metabolite) in cardiovascular disease risk. There is a lack of population-based data on the role of TMAO in advancing early atherosclerotic disease. We tested the prospective associations between TMAO and coronary artery calcium (CAC) and carotid(More)
BACKGROUND The absence of coronary artery calcium (CAC) in middle age is associated with very low short-term risk for coronary events. However, the long-term implications of a CAC score of 0 are uncertain, particularly among individuals with high cardiovascular lifetime risk. We sought to characterize the association between predicted lifetime risk and(More)
BACKGROUND Middle-aged adults with ideal blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose levels exhibit substantially lower cardiovascular mortality than those with unfavorable levels. Four healthy lifestyle components-optimal body weight, diet, physical activity, and not smoking-are recommended for cardiovascular health (CVH). This study quantified associations(More)
R isk prediction equations have been a cornerstone of cardiovascular disease prevention strategies for 2 decades. These equations serve as tools to convert data on multiple risk factors into a summary estimate of a person’s likelihood of experiencing a cardiovascular event over a given period. The first widely used cardiovascular risk prediction equation(More)
BACKGROUND Few adults have ideal cardiovascular health (CVH). We studied associations of an overall CVH score with subclinical cardiovascular disease and events. We assessed whether associations varied by race/ethnicity. METHODS AND RESULTS Among 5961 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, components of CVH were measured at baseline,(More)