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Absorption and CD measurements of complementary oligomers and mixtures are described. The concentrations of oligomers may be estimated from absorption measurements and nearest-neighbor calculations of molar extinction coefficients. Interactions between complementary strands in mixtures can lead to obvious differences between measured CD spectra and the(More)
Prion diseases, a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders, are characterized by the presence of the abnormal scrapie isoform of prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in affected brains. A conformational change is believed to convert the normal cellular prion protein into PrP(Sc). Detection of PrP(Sc) for diagnosis and prophylaxis is impaired because available Abs(More)
Circular dichroism (CD) spectra and melting temperature (Tm) data for five duplexes containing phosphorothioate linkages were compared with data for four unmodified duplexes to assess the effect of phosphorothioate modification on the structure and stability of DNA. DNA and DNA.RNA duplexes. Nine duplexes were formed by mixing oligomers 24 nt long in 0.15 M(More)
CD spectra and difference CD spectra of four d(oligopurine).r(oligopyrimidine) and four r(oligopurine).d(oligopyrimidine) hybrid duplexes containing mixed A.T(U) and G.C base pairs were compared with the spectra of four DNA.DNA and four RNA.RNA oligomer duplexes of similar repeating sequences. The 16 duplexes were formed by mixing oligomers that were 24(More)
Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) have biological activity in treating various forms of cancer. The antisense effects of two types of 20mer ODNs, phosphorothioate-modified ODNs (S-ODNs) and S-ODNs with 12 2'-O-methyl groups (Me-S-ODNs), targeted to sites 109 and 277 of bcl-2 mRNA, were compared. Both types were at least as effective as G3139 (Genta,(More)
Two sets of 20-mer phosphorothioate-modified oligodeoxynucleotide DNAs (sODN) and 21-mer or 22-mer small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), targeted to the same coding sites in raf-1 mRNA, were compared for their abilities to reduce the amount of endogenously expressed Raf-1 protein in T24 cells. The amount of Raf-1 protein was monitored by careful quantitation of(More)
Circular dichroism (CD) measurements were made on both fd and IKe gene 5 proteins in solution. The difference between the CD spectra of these two proteins was interpreted as being the result of an enhanced tyrosine contribution in the IKe gene 5 protein spectrum. There was no spectral evidence for significant alpha-helical structures in either of the two(More)
Circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to study mutants of phage fd gene 5 protein (Y26F, Y34F, and Y41F) in which three of the five tyrosines, Tyr-26, Tyr-34, and Tyr-41, were individually substituted with phenylalanine. The tyrosine 229 nm CD bands of the wild type, Y26F, and Y41F gene 5 proteins decreased in magnitude during complex formation with(More)