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Phylogenetic relationships within the Aphidiinae, and between this and other subfamilies of Braconidae (Hymenoptera), were investigated using sequence data from three genes: elongation factor-1alpha, cytochrome b, and the second expansion segment of the 28S ribosomal subunit. Variation in both protein-coding genes was characterized by a high level of(More)
Incongruence between data sets is an important concept in molecular phylogenetics and is commonly measured by the incongruence length difference (ILD) test (J. S. Farris et al., Cladistics 10, 315-319). The ILD test has been used to infer specific evolutionary events and to determine whether to combine data sets for phylogenetic analysis. However, the(More)
The horse-chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella, is an invasive alien species defoliating horse-chestnut, a popular ornamental tree in Europe. This paper presents quantitative data on mortality factors affecting larvae and pupae of the leaf miner in Switzerland and Bulgaria, both in urban and forest environments. Two sampling methods were used and(More)
How to quantify the phylogenetic information content of a data set is a longstanding question in phylogenetics, influencing both the assessment of data quality in completed studies and the planning of future phylogenetic projects. Recently, a method has been developed that profiles the phylogenetic informativeness (PI) of a data set through time by linking(More)
Elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha) is a highly conserved nuclear coding gene that can be used to investigate recent divergences due to the presence of rapidly evolving introns. However, a universal feature of intron sequences is that even closely related species exhibit insertion and deletion events, which cause variation in the lengths of the sequences.(More)
We tested the published hypothesis of a Gondwanan origin for the overwhelmingly northern hemisphere aphid parasitoids (Aphidiinae) as follows: (i) finding their sister group by a phylogenetic analysis of the entire Braconidae (Insecta: Hymenopterai using sequence data from approximately 500 bp fragments of both the nuclear 28S (D2 region) and mitochondrial(More)
As predicted by theory, traits associated with reproduction often evolve at a comparatively high speed. This is especially the case for courtship behaviour which plays a central role in reproductive isolation. On the other hand, courtship behavioural traits often involve morphological and behavioural adaptations in both sexes; this suggests that their(More)
Wolbachia is a genus of bacterial endosymbionts that impacts the breeding systems of their hosts. Wolbachia can confuse the patterns of mitochondrial variation, including DNA barcodes, because it influences the pathways through which mitochondria are inherited. We examined the extent to which these endosymbionts are detected in routine DNA barcoding,(More)
Anatomical studies and behavioural observations indicate that representatives of the Orussidae use vibrational sounding to detect suitable oviposition sites. During host location, vibrations generated by tapping the tips of the antennae against the wood are picked up by the fore legs through the basitarsal spurs, transmitted along the basitarsi to(More)
Phylogenetic relationships among 95 genera collectively representing 17 of the 18 currently recognized cyclostome braconid wasp subfamilies were investigated based on DNA sequence fragments of the mitochondrial COI and the nuclear 28S rDNA genes, in addition to morphological data. The treatment of sequence length variation of the 28S partition was explored(More)