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Incongruence between data sets is an important concept in molecular phylogenetics and is commonly measured by the incongruence length difference (ILD) test (J. S. Farris et al., Cladistics 10, 315-319). The ILD test has been used to infer specific evolutionary events and to determine whether to combine data sets for phylogenetic analysis. However, the(More)
Phylogenetic relationships within the Aphidiinae, and between this and other subfamilies of Braconidae (Hymenoptera), were investigated using sequence data from three genes: elongation factor-1alpha, cytochrome b, and the second expansion segment of the 28S ribosomal subunit. Variation in both protein-coding genes was characterized by a high level of(More)
We test hypotheses for the evolution of a life history trait among a group of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea), namely, the transition among koinobiont parasitoids (parasitoids whose hosts continue development after oviposition) between attacking exposed hosts and attacking hosts that are concealed within plant tissue. Using a range of(More)
Elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha) is a highly conserved nuclear coding gene that can be used to investigate recent divergences due to the presence of rapidly evolving introns. However, a universal feature of intron sequences is that even closely related species exhibit insertion and deletion events, which cause variation in the lengths of the sequences.(More)
We investigated the phylogeny of the Braconidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) with a much expanded data set compared with that of previous attempts, employing 16S and 28S rDNA gene fragments, together with a suite of morphological characters, from 74 ingroup taxa. Most notably, parsimony analyses under a range of models recovered the Aphidiinae as sister group to(More)
How to quantify the phylogenetic information content of a data set is a longstanding question in phylogenetics, influencing both the assessment of data quality in completed studies and the planning of future phylogenetic projects. Recently, a method has been developed that profiles the phylogenetic informativeness (PI) of a data set through time by linking(More)
Vibrational sounding, which is a form of echolocation, is a means of host location by some parasitoid wasps. The wasp taps the substrate (wood, stem or soil) and detects the position of a potential host through the returning 'echoes'. The deployment of vibrational sounding is inferred through the form of the subgenual organ in the female tibia in(More)
BACKGROUND As predicted by theory, traits associated with reproduction often evolve at a comparatively high speed. This is especially the case for courtship behaviour which plays a central role in reproductive isolation. On the other hand, courtship behavioural traits often involve morphological and behavioural adaptations in both sexes; this suggests that(More)
The parasitoid wasp genus Lysiphlebus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) contains a taxonomically poorly resolved group of both sexual (arrhenotokous) species and asexual (thelytokous) clones. Maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequence data from specimens collected across Western Europe showed that asexuality, which(More)
Vpx and Vpr are homologous proteins encoded by the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses. Vpr is encoded by each of the five primate lentiviral groups, whereas Vpx is restricted to members of the HIV-2 group. A recent report has proposed that the vpx gene was probably acquired from an ancestral member of the SIVagm group by nonhomologous recombination.(More)