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Incongruence between data sets is an important concept in molecular phylogenetics and is commonly measured by the incongruence length difference (ILD) test (J. S. Farris et al., Cladistics 10, 315-319). The ILD test has been used to infer specific evolutionary events and to determine whether to combine data sets for phylogenetic analysis. However, the(More)
How to quantify the phylogenetic information content of a data set is a longstanding question in phylogenetics, influencing both the assessment of data quality in completed studies and the planning of future phylogenetic projects. Recently, a method has been developed that profiles the phylogenetic informativeness (PI) of a data set through time by linking(More)
BACKGROUND As predicted by theory, traits associated with reproduction often evolve at a comparatively high speed. This is especially the case for courtship behaviour which plays a central role in reproductive isolation. On the other hand, courtship behavioural traits often involve morphological and behavioural adaptations in both sexes; this suggests that(More)
A staining procedure is described with differentiates with distinct colours, cobalt and nickel ions introduced into neurones. Densely coloured precipitates are produced with these ions when rubeanic acid, a spot-test reagent, is added. Formation of the coloured complexes takes place within a few minutes, and may be followed under the dissecting microscope.(More)
Wolbachia is a genus of bacterial endosymbionts that impacts the breeding systems of their hosts. Wolbachia can confuse the patterns of mitochondrial variation, including DNA barcodes, because it influences the pathways through which mitochondria are inherited. We examined the extent to which these endosymbionts are detected in routine DNA barcoding,(More)
Phylogenetic relationships among 95 genera collectively representing 17 of the 18 currently recognized cyclostome braconid wasp subfamilies were investigated based on DNA sequence fragments of the mitochondrial COI and the nuclear 28S rDNA genes, in addition to morphological data. The treatment of sequence length variation of the 28S partition was explored(More)
BACKGROUND The braconid subfamily Rogadinae is a large, cosmopolitan group of endoparasitoid wasps characterised by 'mummifying' their lepidopteran host larvae, from which the adult subsequently emerges. Rogadines attack a variety of both macro- and microlepidopteran taxa, although the speciose genus Aleiodes almost exclusively attacks macrolepidopterans.(More)
Our understanding of the critical shift in life history among insect parasitoids from ectoparasitism to endoparasitism is hindered by the fact that this particular life history trait is not known for many phylogenetically important taxa. One method of coping with this problem is to seek correlations between the ovipositor structure and this life history(More)
The incongruence length difference (ILD) test is prone to suggesting significant conflict between character partitions when these differ only in the amount of undirected homoplasy (noise). This has been shown to be due to nonlinearity in the relationship between tree length and noise. Here we show that by standardizing either tree length or 1-retention(More)
Much has been written about latitudinal trends in parasitoid diversity and biology, though it is widely recognised that they are a comparatively poorly known group. Here I show that for both braconid and ichneumonid wasps there are highly significant relationships between body size and the mean recorded latitude of species. Numbers of species per genus(More)