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The effect of age on brain metabolite concentrations was evaluated using localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This technique allows in vivo measurements of N-acetyl compounds (NA), total creatine (CR), choline-containing compounds (CHO), myo-inositol (MI), glutamate and glutamine (GLX), as well as the percentage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and(More)
Using sequential incubations in media of different K+ composition, we investigated the dynamics of choline (Ch) uptake and acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis in rat brain synaptosomal preparations, using two different deuterated variants of choline and a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) assay for ACh and Ch. Synaptosomes were preincubated for 10(More)
Hemicholinium (HC-3) causes a behavioral reactivity in rats which is correlated with the depletion of brain acetylcholine (ACh). The decrease in ACh levels and behavioral effects caused by HC-3 are correlated in a dose-dependent manner, maximal effects being achieved at an intraventricular (i.vt.) dose of 1 microgram. The HC-3 concentration in the brain 2(More)
Accurate diagnosis of the major degenerative dementias continues to be problematic. Although diagnostic precision for Alzheimer's disease (AD) approaches 90%, for Frontotemporal dementias (FTD) it has been less than 20%. Previous work has shown that AD patients have both focal and generalized slowing, while in FTD the EEG is normal. We studied 26AD,13FTD(More)
The purpose of the present experiment was to determine the effects of lesions of cholinergic neurons originating from the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM), alone or in combination with central serotonin depletion, on learning and memory in rats trained in the Stone 14-unit T-maze--a complex, positively-reinforced spatial discrimination task. Lesion of(More)
Severe disruption of certain cholinergic pathways is a characteristic feature of Alzheimer's disease. Attempts to establish animal models by interfering with cholinergic function have not been very successful. We now present data which show a substantial and progressive replacement of free and phospholipid-bound choline by the novel choline isostere(More)
The present experiments were designed to study behavioral, neurochemical and physiological effects of repeated exposure to subsymptomatic levels of the anticholinesterase, soman. Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a soman regimen of 35 micrograms kg-1 (0.3 log10 units below the LD50) which consisted of daily injections SC for the first three days, followed(More)
We occluded the carotid and vertebral arteries of 12 rats for 15 minutes to measure the brain concentrations of choline and acetylcholine and cerebral blood flow at the end of the ischemic period or 15, 30, or 150 minutes after circulation was reestablished. The animals were sacrificed with microwave radiation focused to the head immediately after a brief(More)
We tested the hypothesis that pyridostigmine bromide (PB) intake and/or low-level sarin exposure, suggested by some as causes of the symptoms experienced by Persian Gulf War veterans, induce neurobehavioral dysfunction that outlasts their effects on cholinesterase. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated during 3 weeks with s.c. saline, PB in drinking(More)