Donald J Graham

Learn More
HCV NS3/4a protease inhibitors are proven therapeutic agents against chronic hepatitis C virus infection, with boceprevir and telaprevir having recently received regulatory approval as add-on therapy to pegylated interferon/ribavirin for patients harboring genotype 1 infections. Overcoming antiviral resistance, broad genotype coverage, and a convenient(More)
Indinavir (IDV) (also called CRIXIVAN, MK-639, or L-735,524) is a potent and selective inhibitor of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease. During early clinical trials, in which patients initiated therapy with suboptimal dosages of IDV, we monitored the emergence of viral resistance to the inhibitor by genotypic and phenotypic(More)
Inhibitors of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease have entered clinical study as potential therapeutic agents for HIV-1 infection. The clinical efficacy of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors has been limited by the emergence of resistant viral variants. Similarly, variants expressing resistance to protease inhibitors have been(More)
To evaluate the potential that multiply resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants may arise during combination nucleoside and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy, we constructed a series of mutant reverse transcriptase enzymes and viruses that coexpressed various combinations of resistance-associated amino acid substitutions.(More)
Human rhinoviruses are the major causative agents of the common cold in humans and have been divided into major and minor groups based on receptor specificity. cDNAs encoding the light and heavy chains of a murine monoclonal antibody that recognizes the major group receptor were cloned, abundantly expressed in Escherichia coli, and renatured into Fab(More)
A new class of HCV NS3/4a protease inhibitors containing a P2 to P4 macrocyclic constraint was designed using a molecular modeling-derived strategy. Building on the profile of previous clinical compounds and exploring the P2 and linker regions of the series allowed for optimization of broad genotype and mutant enzyme potency, cellular activity, and rat(More)
A 90-kDa surface glycoprotein was previously isolated and shown to be required for infection by the "major" group of human rhinovirus (HRV) serotypes. In the present work, the amino acid sequence of the receptor protein was obtained from CNBr and tryptic peptides. Using degenerate oligonucleotides predicted from the peptide sequences, we identified four(More)
A new class of HCV NS3/4a protease inhibitors which contain a P2 to P4 macrocyclic constraint was designed using a molecular-modeling derived strategy. Exploration of the P2 heterocyclic region, the P2 to P4 linker, and the P1 side chain of this class of compounds via a modular synthetic strategy allowed for the optimization of enzyme potency, cellular(More)
The NS5A protein plays a critical role in the replication of HCV and has been the focus of numerous research efforts over the past few years. NS5A inhibitors have shown impressive in vitro potency profiles in HCV replicon assays, making them attractive components for inclusion in all oral combination regimens. Early work in the NS5A arena led to the(More)
The innate genetic variability characteristic of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection makes drug resistance a concern in the clinical development of HCV inhibitors. To address this, a transient replication assay was developed to evaluate the replication fitness and the drug sensitivity of NS5B sequences isolated from the sera of patients with chronic(More)