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Cannabinoids and opioids share several pharmacologic properties and may act synergistically. The potential pharmacokinetics and the safety of the combination in humans are unknown. We therefore undertook a study to answer these questions. Twenty-one individuals with chronic pain, on a regimen of twice-daily doses of sustained-release morphine or oxycodone(More)
BACKGROUND Despite declines in morbidity and mortality with the use of combination antiretroviral therapy, its effectiveness is limited by adverse events, problems with adherence, and resistance of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS We randomly assigned persons infected with HIV who had a CD4+ cell count of more than 350 per cubic millimeter(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of smoked cannabis on the neuropathic pain of HIV-associated sensory neuropathy and an experimental pain model. METHODS Prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial conducted in the inpatient General Clinical Research Center between May 2003 and May 2005 involving adults with painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy.(More)
BACKGROUND Cannabinoid use could potentially alter HIV RNA levels by two mechanisms: immune modulation or cannabinoid-protease inhibitor interactions (because both share cytochrome P-450 metabolic pathways). OBJECTIVE To determine the short-term effects of smoked marijuana on the viral load in HIV-infected patients. DESIGN Randomized,(More)
We conducted a study to identify the viruses in tissue specimens of oral "hairy" leukoplakia, a lesion that is found in immunosuppressed male homosexuals and that is associated with the subsequent development of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. When stained for papillomavirus core antigen, 49 of 67 biopsy specimens (73 per cent) yielded positive(More)
BACKGROUND Few studies have compared cancer risk between HIV-infected individuals and a demographically similar HIV-uninfected internal comparison group, adjusting for cancer risk factors. METHODS We followed 20,775 HIV-infected and 215,158 HIV-uninfected individuals enrolled in Kaiser Permanente (KP) California for incident cancer from 1996 to 2008. Rate(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The use of cannabinoids for appetite stimulation and the management of wasting and antiretroviral side-effects has become a common practice in the care of HIV-infected individuals. We present pharmacokinetic data from a randomized placebo-controlled study designed to evaluate the metabolic effects of smoked marijuana and dronabinol(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the extent to which HIV-infected patients, including those with advanced immunodeficiency, can reverse peripheral CD4 T-cell depletion while maintaining long-term viral suppression on highly active antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN Cohort study. PARTICIPANTS Four-hundred and twenty-three HIV-infected patients who initiated HAART(More)