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Size-fractionated aerosol particles were collected in a hospital emergency department to test for airborne influenza virus. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction, we confirmed the presence of airborne influenza virus and found that 53% of detectable influenza virus particles were within the respirable aerosol fraction. Our results provide evidence that(More)
Influenza is thought to be communicated from person to person by multiple pathways. However, the relative importance of different routes of influenza transmission is unclear. To better understand the potential for the airborne spread of influenza, we measured the amount and size of aerosol particles containing influenza virus that were produced by coughing.(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of latex sensitisation among a large group of healthcare workers, study the occupational and non-occupational factors associated with latex allergy, and characterise latex exposure in air and by gloves. METHODS All 2062 employees of a general hospital in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada who regularly used latex gloves were(More)
Exposure to fungi, particularly in water damaged indoor environments, has been thought to exacerbate a number of adverse health effects, ranging from subjective symptoms such as fatigue, cognitive difficulties or memory loss to more definable diseases such as allergy, asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Understanding the role of fungal exposure in(More)
BACKGROUND The potential for aerosol transmission of infectious influenza virus (ie, in healthcare facilities) is controversial. We constructed a simulated patient examination room that contained coughing and breathing manikins to determine whether coughed influenza was infectious and assessed the effectiveness of an N95 respirator and surgical mask in(More)
BACKGROUND The role of relative humidity in the aerosol transmission of influenza was examined in a simulated examination room containing coughing and breathing manikins. METHODS Nebulized influenza was coughed into the examination room and Bioaerosol samplers collected size-fractionated aerosols (<1 µM, 1-4 µM, and >4 µM aerodynamic diameters) adjacent(More)
Mycoplasma hyorhinis has been shown to induce the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) from monocytes. To identify the molecules responsible for this activity, we separated sonicated M. hyorhinis lysate material by centrifugation at 100,000 x g into soluble (S) and particulate (P) fractions. The fractions were assayed for TNF-alpha-inducing(More)
Inhalation of common indoor filamentous fungi has been associated with the induction or exacerbation of allergic respiratory disease. The understanding of fungal inhalation and allergic sensitization has significantly advanced with the use of small animal models, especially mouse models. Numerous studies have employed different animal exposure and(More)
Fibronectin (Fn) fragments have recently been shown to stimulate tumor necrosis factor (TNF) secretion by human monocytes. In this study, we investigated the signal transduction mechanisms involved in Fn-induced TNF secretion. Treatment of human monocytes with Fn120, a chymotryptic cell-binding fragment of plasma Fn, failed to cause a detectable rise in(More)
Pulmonary exposure to Aspergillus fumigatus has been associated with morbidity and mortality, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. A. fumigatus conidia produce β-glucan, proteases, and other immunostimulatory factors upon germination. Murine models have shown that the ability of A. fumigatus to germinate at physiological temperature may be an(More)