Donald Francis

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BACKGROUND The development of a safe and effective vaccine against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is critical to pandemic control. METHODS In a community-based, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy trial, we evaluated four priming injections of a recombinant canarypox vector vaccine (ALVAC-HIV [vCP1521]) plus(More)
BACKGROUND An objective of the first efficacy trial of a candidate vaccine containing recombinant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (rgp120) antigens was to assess correlations between antibody responses to rgp120 and the incidence of HIV-1 infection. METHODS Within the randomized trial (for vaccinees, n=3598; for placebo(More)
BACKGROUND A recombinant canarypox vector expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag, Pro, and membrane-linked gp120 (vCP1521), combined with a bivalent gp120 protein boost (AIDSVAX B/E), provided modest protection against HIV-1 infection in a community-based population in Thailand (RV144 trial). No protection was observed in Thai injection(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe recruitment, screening and baseline characteristics of injection drug users (IDU) participating in a phase III HIV vaccine (AIDSVAX B/E; VaxGen, USA) trial and to compare enrollment characteristics between trial participants and 1209 IDU from a 1995-1998 vaccine trial preparatory cohort for changes that might impact trial design(More)
HIV-1-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass antibodies bind to distinct cellular Fc receptors. Antibodies of the same epitope specificity but of a different subclass therefore can have different antibody effector functions. The study of IgG subclass profiles between different vaccine regimens used in clinical trials with divergent efficacy outcomes can(More)
The human phase 2B RV144 ALVAC-HIV vCP1521/AIDSVAX B/E vaccine trial, held in Thailand, resulted in an estimated 31.2% efficacy against HIV infection. By contrast, vaccination with VAX003 (consisting of only AIDSVAX B/E) was not protective. Because protection within RV144 was observed in the absence of neutralizing antibody activity or cytotoxic T cell(More)
AIDSVAX (VaxGen, Inc., South San Francisco, CA), a possible vaccine to protect against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, is being tested for efficacy in phase 3 studies. It has been tested for potential efficacy in chimpanzees, and tested for safety and immunogenicity in human clinical studies. Four candidate vaccines, each with a(More)
Over a 3-year period, 149 Yucpa Indians in Venezuela developed hepatitis; 34 persons died and at least 22 developed chronic hepatitis. Children and young adults were primarily affected, especially males. Serologic testing showed that hepatitis B virus infection was highly endemic in this population, but also that 65% of patients had hepatitis B virus(More)
To study the duration of antibody persistence and protection provided by the hepatitis B vaccine, we followed 773 homosexual men for five years after completion of vaccination. Among the 635 participants in whom antibody levels above 9.9 sample ratio units (SRU) developed after vaccination, 15 percent lost antibody altogether, and in another 27 percent,(More)
To investigate the effect of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection on subsequent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, HIV antibody was sought in homosexual men who developed HBV infection during a hepatitis B vaccine trial. Among 134 unvaccinated HIV-1-negative men, 7% became HBV carriers, 64% had viremia, and 42% had clinical illness. Among(More)