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BACKGROUND The development of a safe and effective vaccine against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is critical to pandemic control. METHODS In a community-based, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy trial, we evaluated four priming injections of a recombinant canarypox vector vaccine (ALVAC-HIV [vCP1521]) plus(More)
Ninety-seven female sexual partners of 93 men infected with human immunodeficiency virus were studied. All of the women had sexual contact within the year before their partner had been diagnosed as having acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or was found to have a positive reaction on the human immunodeficiency virus serologic test. Fifty-seven percent were(More)
HIV-1-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass antibodies bind to distinct cellular Fc receptors. Antibodies of the same epitope specificity but of a different subclass therefore can have different antibody effector functions. The study of IgG subclass profiles between different vaccine regimens used in clinical trials with divergent efficacy outcomes can(More)
BACKGROUND A recombinant canarypox vector expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag, Pro, and membrane-linked gp120 (vCP1521), combined with a bivalent gp120 protein boost (AIDSVAX B/E), provided modest protection against HIV-1 infection in a community-based population in Thailand (RV144 trial). No protection was observed in Thai injection(More)
BACKGROUND The Thai Phase III Trial of ALVAC-HIV and AIDSVAX B/E showed an estimated vaccine efficacy (VE) of 31% to prevent acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here we evaluated the effect of vaccination on disease progression after infection. METHODS CD4(+) T-cell counts and HIV viral load (VL) were measured serially. The primary analysis(More)
The phenotype of human decidual leukocytes, composed predominantly of CD3-CD16(-)-CD56bright cells, was examined after culture with IL-2 by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. After IL-2 stimulation the phenotype became like that found on classical NK cells, with an increased proportion of cells expressing CD16. The IL-2R alpha was absent before and(More)
Yupik Eskimos of southwestern Alaska have the highest known prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection of any general population in the United States. Prospective serological surveys of 1,280 seronegative Yupik Eskimos, performed between 1971 and 1976, identified 189 (14.8%) who developed serological evidence of hepatitis B virus infection. Twenty-six(More)
To study the duration of antibody persistence and protection provided by the hepatitis B vaccine, we followed 773 homosexual men for five years after completion of vaccination. Among the 635 participants in whom antibody levels above 9.9 sample ratio units (SRU) developed after vaccination, 15 percent lost antibody altogether, and in another 27 percent,(More)
BACKGROUND An objective of the first efficacy trial of a candidate vaccine containing recombinant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (rgp120) antigens was to assess correlations between antibody responses to rgp120 and the incidence of HIV-1 infection. METHODS Within the randomized trial (for vaccinees, n=3598; for placebo(More)
The human phase 2B RV144 ALVAC-HIV vCP1521/AIDSVAX B/E vaccine trial, held in Thailand, resulted in an estimated 31.2% efficacy against HIV infection. By contrast, vaccination with VAX003 (consisting of only AIDSVAX B/E) was not protective. Because protection within RV144 was observed in the absence of neutralizing antibody activity or cytotoxic T cell(More)