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BACKGROUND The development of a safe and effective vaccine against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is critical to pandemic control. METHODS In a community-based, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy trial, we evaluated four priming injections of a recombinant canarypox vector vaccine (ALVAC-HIV [vCP1521]) plus(More)
Horizontally transmitted viruses have been etiologically linked to leukemia and lymphoma in several higher mammals (gibbons, cows, and cats). In the best-studied example, the cat, feline leukemia virus is a common community-acquired virus that infrequently produces cancer. However, the infection and its complications (cancer) are not typical of infectious(More)
HIV-1-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass antibodies bind to distinct cellular Fc receptors. Antibodies of the same epitope specificity but of a different subclass therefore can have different antibody effector functions. The study of IgG subclass profiles between different vaccine regimens used in clinical trials with divergent efficacy outcomes can(More)
BACKGROUND A recombinant canarypox vector expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag, Pro, and membrane-linked gp120 (vCP1521), combined with a bivalent gp120 protein boost (AIDSVAX B/E), provided modest protection against HIV-1 infection in a community-based population in Thailand (RV144 trial). No protection was observed in Thai injection(More)
To investigate the effect of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection on subsequent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, HIV antibody was sought in homosexual men who developed HBV infection during a hepatitis B vaccine trial. Among 134 unvaccinated HIV-1-negative men, 7% became HBV carriers, 64% had viremia, and 42% had clinical illness. Among(More)
BACKGROUND The Thai Phase III Trial of ALVAC-HIV and AIDSVAX B/E showed an estimated vaccine efficacy (VE) of 31% to prevent acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here we evaluated the effect of vaccination on disease progression after infection. METHODS CD4(+) T-cell counts and HIV viral load (VL) were measured serially. The primary analysis(More)
The phenotype of human decidual leukocytes, composed predominantly of CD3-CD16(-)-CD56bright cells, was examined after culture with IL-2 by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. After IL-2 stimulation the phenotype became like that found on classical NK cells, with an increased proportion of cells expressing CD16. The IL-2R alpha was absent before and(More)
The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), which has recently occurred at increasing rates in homosexual men, intravenous drug users, and others, is characterized by the development of Kaposi's sarcoma and several opportunistic infections including pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis carinii. Serum samples from patients with AIDS and from matched and(More)
Yupik Eskimos of southwestern Alaska have the highest known prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection of any general population in the United States. Prospective serological surveys of 1,280 seronegative Yupik Eskimos, performed between 1971 and 1976, identified 189 (14.8%) who developed serological evidence of hepatitis B virus infection. Twenty-six(More)