Donald F. Steiner

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The prohormone convertase SPC2 (PC2) participates in the processing of proinsulin, proglucagon, and a variety of other neuroendocrine precursors, acting either alone or in conjunction with the structurally related dense-core granule convertase SPC3 (PC3/PC1). We have generated a strain of mice lacking active SPC2 by introducing the neomycin resistance gene(More)
We report 10 heterozygous mutations in the human insulin gene in 16 probands with neonatal diabetes. A combination of linkage and a candidate gene approach in a family with four diabetic members led to the identification of the initial INS gene mutation. The mutations are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner in this and two other small families whereas(More)
OBJECTIVE Insulin gene (INS) mutations have recently been described as a cause of permanent neonatal diabetes (PND). We aimed to determine the prevalence, genetics, and clinical phenotype of INS mutations in large cohorts of patients with neonatal diabetes and permanent diabetes diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adulthood. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS(More)
Mice homozygous for the fat mutation develop obesity and hyperglycaemia that can be suppressed by treatment with exogenous insulin. The fat mutation maps to mouse chromosome 8, very close to the gene for carboxypeptidase E (Cpe), which encodes an enzyme (CPE) that processes prohormone intermediates such as proinsulfn. We now demonstrate a defect in(More)
Although insulin and the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) share marked similarities in amino acid sequence and biological activity, their evolutionary origins have not been resolved. To investigate this issue, we recently cloned a cDNA encoding an insulin-like peptide (ILP) from a primitive chordate species, amphioxus (Branchiostoma californiensis). The(More)
Recent studies have shown that homologues of the mammalian IGF-I and -II genes are also found in teleosts. We report here the cDNAs coding for IGF-I and IGF-II cloned from the gilthead seabream, Sparus aura ta. Sequence comparisons revealed that both IGFs have been well conserved among teleosts, although Sparus IGF-I is shorter bv three amino acid residues(More)
Many cellular processes, including embryogenesis (1–4), gene expression (5), cell cycle (6), programmed cell death (7), intracellular protein targeting (8) and endocrine/neural functions (9–13) are regulated by limited proteolysis of precursor proteins (14, 15). These functions are carried out by proteolytic enzyme families that are strategically localized(More)
Protein and cDNA sequence analysis have revealed that the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) has been highly conserved among several mammalian species. Using the combined techniques of polymerase chain reaction and molecular cloning, we have now obtained the cDNA sequence encoding preproIGF-I from a teleost species, Oncorhynchus kisutch (coho salmon). The(More)
The subtilisin-like proprotein convertases PC1/3 (SPC3) and PC2 (SPC2) are believed to be the major endoproteolytic processing enzymes of the regulated secretory pathway. They are expressed together or separately in neuroendocrine cells throughout the brain and dispersed endocrine system in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Disruption of the gene-encoding(More)
Over the last decade our insight into the causes of neonatal diabetes has greatly expanded. Neonatal diabetes was once considered a variant of type 1 diabetes that presented early in life. Recent advances in our understanding of this disorder have established that neonatal diabetes is not an autoimmune disease, but rather is a monogenic form of diabetes(More)