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Prenatal viral infection has been associated with development of schizophrenia and autism. Our laboratory has previously shown that viral infection causes deleterious effects on brain structure and function in mouse offspring following late first trimester (E9) administration of influenza virus. We hypothesized that late second trimester infection (E18) in(More)
Evaluation of potential influenza virus inhibitors may utilize multiple steps. First would be to determine if the viral target (e.g. influenza virus neuraminidase) being focused upon will be inhibited in the appropriate assay. Standard in vitro antiviral assays, used next in antiviral evaluations, may utilize inhibition of viral plaques, viral cytopathic(More)
Favipiravir (T-705; 6-fluoro-3-hydroxy-2-pyrazinecarboxamide) is an antiviral drug that selectively inhibits the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of influenza virus. It is phosphoribosylated by cellular enzymes to its active form, favipiravir-ribofuranosyl-5'-triphosphate (RTP). Its antiviral effect is attenuated by the addition of purine nucleic acids,(More)
The antiherpetic effects of a novel purine acyclic nucleoside, 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine (DHPG), were compared with those of acyclovir in cell cultures and in mice. The modes of action of DHPG and acyclovir were similar in that herpes thymidine kinase phosphorylated each compound, and both agents selectively inhibited viral over host cell DNA(More)
The recurring emergence of influenza virus strains that are resistant to available antiviral medications has become a global health concern, especially in light of the potential for a new influenza virus pandemic. Currently, virtually all circulating strains of influenza A virus in the United States are resistant to either of the two major classes of(More)
The TC-83 vaccine strain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) causes encephalitis and death in C3H/HeN mice infected by intranasal (i.n.) instillation. Since TC-83 is exempt as a select agent, this mouse model was used in the evaluation of antiviral therapies. Virus titers in the brains of infected mice peaked on 4 dpi and persisted at high levels(More)
Cyanovirin-N (CV-N), a protein derived from Nostoc ellipsosporum, neutralizes influenza virus infectivity by binding to specific high-mannose oligosaccharides (oligomannose-8 and -9) at glycosylation sites on the viral hemagglutinin HA1 subunit. Mouse-adapted viruses lose sensitivity to CV-N due to HA1 mutations that eliminate these glycosylation sites.(More)
The cyclopentane influenza virus neuraminidase inhibitor RWJ-270201 was evaluated against influenza A/NWS/33 (H1N1), A/Shangdong/09/93 (H3N2), A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2), and B/Hong Kong/05/72 virus infections in mice. Treatment was by oral gavage twice daily for 5 days beginning 4 h pre-virus exposure. The influenza virus inhibitor oseltamivir was run in(More)
Compounds lacking oral activity may be delivered intranasally to treat influenza virus infections in mice. However, intranasal treatments greatly enhance the virulence of such virus infections. This can be partially compensated for by giving reduced virus challenge doses. These can be 100- to 1,000-fold lower than infections without such treatment and still(More)
UNLABELLED Arbidol (ARB) is a synthetic antiviral originally developed to combat influenza viruses. ARB is currently used clinically in several countries but not in North America. We have previously shown that ARB inhibits in vitro hepatitis C virus (HCV) by blocking HCV entry and replication. In this report, we expand the list of viruses that are inhibited(More)