Donald C. Steinkraus

Learn More
Invertebrate pathogens and their hosts are taxonomically diverse. Despite this, there is one unifying concept relevant to all such parasitic associations: Both pathogen and host adapt to maximize their own reproductive output and ultimate fitness. The strategies adopted by pathogens and hosts to achieve this goal are almost as diverse as the organisms(More)
Fungal pathogens are the most important pathogens of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae), and epizootics, particularly those caused by Entomophthorales (Zygomycota), are frequently observed and often rapidly reduce aphid populations. Fungi in the Hypocreales (Ascomycota) are less commonly found infecting aphids but can be important. The transmission of aphid(More)
Sixteen species of Diptera from eight families were inoculated with conidia ofEntomophthora muscae (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales). The following species were susceptible and became infected at the rates indicated:Musca domestica (100%),Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis (86%),Phaenicia sericata (44%),Scatophaga stercoraria (30%),Drosophila melanogaster (11%),Aedes(More)
Conservation biological control relies on modification of the environment or management practices to protect and encourage natural enemies that are already present within the system, thereby enhancing and improving their ability to control pest populations in a reliable way. Such strategies are only possible when based on a strong understanding of the(More)
Initial screening of 12 Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin isolates against larvae of the lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus [Panzer]) resulted in the selection of two isolates, GHA and 707, for further testing under field conditions. Three formulations of each strain were prepared: an EC, a ground corn granular formulation, and waste product of(More)
The impact of natural enemies on cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), populations in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., production systems in the southeastern United States was evaluated over 3 yr in irrigated commercial cotton fields. Fungal epizootics caused by the entomopathogen Neozygites fresenii (Nowakowski) Batko reduced aphid(More)
An unknown fungal pathogen was recovered from Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) during a survey of parasitic and pathogenic natural enemies conducted in Franklin County, Arkansas. The pathogen was identified as Pandora heteropterae (Bałazy) Keller based on characteristics of the morphology, as well as growth and sporulation on hosts. The fungus(More)
Aethina tumida / Malpighian tubule / parasite / neogregarine / biological control The small hive beetle (SHB), Aethina tumida (Coleop-tera: Nitidulidae), is an invasive pest of European honey bee colonies. Chemical and cultural controls are typically used to keep SHBs at a tolerable level. Little work has been done on the biological control of SHBs. While(More)
Ovavesicula popilliae is a microsporidian that infects both Japanese beetle larvae and adults. This is the first study quantifying the number of O. popilliae spores produced by Japanese beetle adults. Mean spore production per adult Japanese beetle was 2.67 × 10(7) (SE ± 4.65 × 10(6)) spores with a range of 1.46 × 10(6)-1.02 × 10(8). The number of spores(More)
A 12-acre field at the Delta Branch Station in Clarkedale, AR, was subdivided into 16 plots, each ~ 0.75 acre in size (56 rows x 63 m). The experiment consisted of four treatments: (1) untreated control, (2) fungicide treated, (3) conventional threshold, and (4) experimental threshold; with four replicates in a Latin square design. The fungicide treatment(More)