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Despite the publication in the mid-1990s of comprehensive practice guidelines for the management of acute low-back pain, both in the United States and elsewhere, this ubiquitous health problem continues to be the main cause of workers' compensation claims in much of the Western world. This paper represents a synthesis of the intervention studies published(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the global burden of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) after pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), specifically in cases with pulmonary cavitation. METHODS PTB rates were obtained from the World Health Organization and a scoping review of the literature was conducted to identify studies on residual pulmonary cavitation after PTB and(More)
International researchers have urged greater use of simple neurobehavioral batteries in developing country settings where higher levels of exposure and a variety of cultural and demographic factors may both occur. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 144 farm members and 72 age and education frequency-matched controls from rural Ecuador, using an(More)
Active surveillance of acute pesticide poisonings in a potato-growing region of highland Ecuador during 1991-1992 uncovered a rate of 171/100,000, due predominantly to occupational exposures to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. Occupational exposure among agricultural workers was the most common reason for poisoning (32 male workers and 1 female(More)
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) may complicate pulmonary sarcoidosis. We re-estimated the global burden of sarcoidosis and the burden of CPA complicating sarcoidosis. We searched the literature and reference lists of retrieved papers to identify all published sarcoidosis incidence and prevalence data. We estimated the frequency of CPA from 11 papers(More)
OBJECTIVE To review literature documenting associations between pesticide use and cancer. DATA SOURCES We searched MEDLINE, PreMedline, CancerLit, and LILACS to find studies published between 1992 and 2003 on non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, and 8 solid-tumour cancers: brain, breast, kidney, lung, ovarian, pancreatic, prostate, and stomach cancer. STUDY(More)
Increasing concern over the impact of hot weather on health has fostered the development of public health interventions to reduce heat-related health impacts. However, evidence of the effectiveness of such interventions is rarely cited for justification. Our objective was to review peer-reviewed and grey literature evaluating interventions aimed at reducing(More)
Malaria and anaemia are important health problems among children globally. Iron deficiency anaemia may offer protection against malaria infection and iron supplementation may increase the risk of malaria-related hospitalization and mortality. The nature and mechanism of these relationships, however, remain largely unresolved, resulting in concern and(More)
The objective of this study was to test whether there was an association between the use of glyphosate when applied by aerial spray for the eradication of illicit crops (cocaine and poppy) and time to pregnancy (TTP) among fertile women. A retrospective cohort study (with an ecological exposure index) of first pregnancies was undertaken in 2592 fertile(More)
Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are one of the most important and cost-effective tools for malaria control. Maximizing individual and community benefit from ITNs requires high population-based coverage. Several mechanisms are used to distribute ITNs, including health facility-based targeted distribution to high-risk groups; community-based mass(More)