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BACKGROUND Adrenaline is used increasingly in the management of septic shock, but its efficacy and safety are uncertain. METHODS In an open, randomised, crossover study we compared the effects of stepped doses of adrenaline 0.1 to 0.5 microgram/kg per min and dopamine 2.5 to 10 micrograms/kg per min on the haemodynamic and acid-base status of 23 patients(More)
The length dependence of charge transport is evaluated in three families of porphyrin-based wires. Planar edge-fused tapes and alkyne-linked oligomers mediate efficient charge transport with exceptionally shallow distance dependence, whereas the conductances of the twisted singly linked chains decrease steeply with increasing oligomer length. The planar(More)
So-called bottom-up fabrication methods aim to assemble and integrate molecular components exhibiting specific functions into electronic devices that are orders of magnitude smaller than can be fabricated by lithographic techniques. Fundamental to the success of the bottom-up approach is the ability to control electron transport across molecular components.(More)
Short chains of porphyrin molecules can mediate electron transport over distances as long as 5-10 nm with low attenuation. This means that porphyrin-based molecular wires could be useful in nanoelectronic and photovoltaic devices, but the mechanisms responsible for charge transport in single oligo-porphyrin wires have not yet been established. Here, based(More)
Spontaneous formation of stable molecular wires between a gold scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) tip and substrate is observed when the sample has a low coverage of alpha,omega-dithiol molecules and the tunneling resistance is made sufficiently small. Current-distance curves taken under these conditions exhibit characteristic current plateaux at large(More)
The measurement of the electrical properties of molecules, down to the single molecule level, has become an experimental reality in recent years. A number of methods are now available for experimentally achieving this feat. The common aim of these methods is to entrap a single or small numbers of molecules between a pair of metallic contacts. This topical(More)
The temperature dependence of the single molecule conductance (SMC) of alpha,omega-alkanedithiols has been investigated using a scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) method. This is based on trapping molecules between a gold STM tip and a gold substrate and measuring directly the current across the molecule under different applied potentials. A pronounced(More)
A series of thioacetate-terminated butadiyne-linked porphyrin oligomers have been synthesized with one to three porphyrin repeat units. Single molecule electrical scanning tunneling microscopy measurements using the I(s) and I(t) methods were used to determine the molecule conductances for this series of oligomers. The molecular conductance shows an(More)
9-Diazofluorene, on treatment with stoichiometric or substoichiometric amounts of quaternary ammonium hydroxide or methoxide or of potassium t-butoxide in solution in aqueous or alcoholic dimethyl sulfoxide or acetonitrile at 30 degrees C, decomposes with evolution of nitrogen to yield fluorenone azine [bis(fluorenylidene)hydrazine] in almost quantitative(More)