Donald B Stedman

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Bisphenol A (BPA) is used on a large scale in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. BPA has been shown to bind weakly to both estrogen receptor (ER)alpha and ERbeta, and to transactivate reporter genes in vitro. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether exposure of rats to BPA during pre- and postnatal development affects(More)
This report provides a progress update of a consortium effort to develop a harmonized zebrafish developmental toxicity assay. Twenty non-proprietary compounds (10 animal teratogens and 10 animal non-teratogens) were evaluated blinded in 4 laboratories. Zebrafish embryos from pond-derived and cultivated strain wild types were exposed to the test compounds(More)
The National Research Council's (NRC) toxicity testing vision lays out a bold future for our field. It depends heavily on computational algorithms based on the latest knowledge of cellular biochemistry and protein interaction pathways, exposing human cells to novel compounds in vitro, and being able to understand the changes seen. At the same time,(More)
BACKGROUND There is concern about embryo-fetal exposure to antibody-based biopharmaceuticals based on the increase of such therapies being prescribed to women of childbearing potential. Therefore, there is a desire to better characterize embryo-fetal exposure of these molecules. The pregnant rat is a standard model for evaluating the potential consequences(More)
BACKGROUND The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) designed the Embryonic Stem Cell Test (EST) as a tool for classifying developmentally toxic compounds. An in vitro tool to assess developmental toxicity would be of great value to the pharmaceutical industry to help with toxicity-associated attrition. METHODS ECVAM's EST(More)
Our group has been using the ECVAM Embryonic Stem Cell assay to predict developmental toxicity. In order to improve the separation of non-teratogens from weak teratogens, we have employed measures of gene expression, and different statistical methods from those originally used to develop the test. These approaches have fundamentally not improved the(More)
Cell death was analyzed in neurulating mouse embryos after in vivo doses of 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME) that produce anterior neural tube defects. Characterization of 2-ME-induced cell death was performed by evaluating: (1) vital fluorochrome staining in whole embryos applying confocal laser scanning microscopy; (2) characteristics of cell debris in(More)
The industrial solvent 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME) elicits phase-specific terata in mice through its primary metabolite and proximate toxicant, 2-methoxyacetic acid (2-MAA). Recent pharmacokinetic studies indicate that the incidence and severity of digit malformations induced in CD-1 mice by 2-ME exposure on gestation day (gd) 11 (copulation plug = gd 0)(More)
Gestation day 11 CD-1 mouse embryos were cultured in serum containing or serum-free media for 6 h in the presence of 2-methoxyacetic acid (2-MAA), the proximate teratogen arising from 2-methoxyethanol. The rate of DNA synthesis was determined following exposure of embryos to [3H]thymidine during the final hour of culture. 2-MAA (25 mM) produced a 50%(More)