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We are interested in estimating the average effect of a binary treatment on a scalar outcome. If assignment to the treatment is exogenous or unconfounded, that is, independent of the potential outcomes given covariates, biases associated with simple treatment-control average comparisons can be removed by adjusting for differences in the covariates.(More)
Many scientific problems require that treatment comparisons be adjusted for posttreatment variables, but the estimands underlying standard methods are not causal effects. To address this deficiency, we propose a general framework for comparing treatments adjusting for posttreatment variables that yields principal effects based on principal stratification.(More)
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SUMMARY The EM algorithm and its extensions are popular tools for modal estimation but are often criticised for their slow convergence. We propose a new method that can often make EM much faster. The intuitive idea is to use a 'covariance adjustment' to correct the analysis of the M step, capitalising on extra information captured in the imputed complete(More)
Propensity score methodology can be used to help design observational studies in a way analogous to the way randomized experiments are designed: without seeing any answers involving outcome variables. The typical models used to analyze observational data (e.g., least squares regressions, difference of difference methods) involve outcomes, and so cannot be(More)
The aim of many analyses of large databases is to draw causal inferences about the effects of actions, treatments, or interventions. Examples include the effects of various options available to a physician for treating a particular patient, the relative efficacies of various health care providers, and the consequences of implementing a new national health(More)
The use of the Gibbs sampler with fully conditionally specified models, where the distribution of each variable given the other variables is the starting point, has become a popular method to create imputations in incomplete multivariate data. The theoretical weakness of this approach is that the specified conditional densities can be incompatible, and(More)
Multiple imputation for non-response replaces each missing value by two or more plausible values. The values can be chosen to represent both uncertainty about the reasons for non-response and uncertainty about which values to impute assuming the reasons for non-response are known. This paper provides an overview of methods for creating and analysing(More)