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The 2,160,837-base pair genome sequence of an isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae, a Gram-positive pathogen that causes pneumonia, bacteremia, meningitis, and otitis media, contains 2236 predicted coding regions; of these, 1440 (64%) were assigned a biological role. Approximately 5% of the genome is composed of insertion sequences that may contribute to(More)
Competence for genetic transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae is regulated by a quorum-sensing system encoded by two genetic loci, comCDE and comAB. Additional competence-specific operons, cilA, cilB, cilC, cilD, cilE, cinA-recA, coiA, and cfl, involved in the DNA uptake process and recombination, share an unusual consensus sequence at -10 and -25 in(More)
We report the discovery of a group of highly conserved DNA sequences located, in those cases studied, within intergenic regions of the chromosome of the Gram positive Streptococcus pneumoniae. The S. pneumoniae genome contains about 25 of these elements called BOX. From 5' to 3', BOX elements are composed of three subunits (boxA, boxB, and boxC) which are(More)
In bacterial genetic transformation the uptake of DNA and its integration into the resident chromosome is dependent on a special cellular state, termed competence. In those species where appearance of competence has been studied, specific (but often poorly defined) growth conditions lead to a simultaneous development of competence in a substantial fraction(More)
Natural genetic transformation offers a direct route by which synthetic gene constructs can be placed into the single circular chromosome of Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, the lack of a general negative-selection marker has hampered the introduction of constructs that do not confer a selectable phenotype. A 1.3-kb cassette was constructed comprising a(More)
Although more than a dozen new proteins are produced when Streptococcus pneumoniae cells become competent for genetic transformation, only a few of the corresponding genes have been identified to date. To find genes responsible for the production of competence-specific proteins, a random lacZ transcriptional fusion library was constructed in S. pneumoniae(More)
Natural transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae is regulated by a quorum-sensing system that acts through accumulation and sensing of a peptide pheromone (competence-stimulating peptide [CSP]) to control many competence-specific genes acting in DNA uptake, processing, and integration. The period of competence induced by CSP lasts only 15 min(More)
Natural genetic transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae is controlled by a quorum-sensing system, which acts through the competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) for transient activation of genes required for competence. More than 100 genes have been identified as CSP regulated by use of DNA microarray analysis. One of the CSP-induced genes required for(More)
Here we show that S. suis, a major bacterial pathogen of pigs and emerging pathogen in humans responds to a peptide pheromone by developing competence for DNA transformation. This species does not fall within any of the phylogenetic clusters of streptococci previously shown to regulate competence via peptide pheromones suggesting that more species of(More)
In Streptococcus mutans, an oral colonizer associated with dental caries, development of competence for natural genetic transformation is triggered by either of two types of peptide pheromones, competence-stimulating peptides (CSPs) (18 amino acids [aa]) or SigX-inducing peptides (XIPs) (7 aa). Competence induced by CSP is a late response to the pheromone(More)