Donald A. Lloyd

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This paper reports the community prevalence of 20 life traumas and considers their individual relevance as risk factors for psychiatric disorder. Also presented is the first evidence on the mental health significance of cumulative adversity as indexed by a count of lifetime exposure to a wide array of potentially traumatic events. The question of the(More)
BACKGROUND With the exception of studies of individual traumatic events, the significance of stress exposure in psychiatric disorder previously has not been effectively examined. OBJECTIVE To address the hypothesis that accumulated adversity represents an important risk factor for the subsequent onset of depressive and anxiety disorders. DESIGN A(More)
AIMS To study cumulative exposure to stressors as a risk factor for drug dependence, and evaluate whether group differences in exposure contribute to differences in prevalence. DESIGN Cross-sectional community survey of life-time adverse experiences and substance and psychiatric disorders. SETTING Data collected between 1997 and 2000 in Miami-Dade(More)
OBJECTIVE Several investigators have questioned the validity of the DSM-IV Alcohol Use Disorders criteria for diagnosing alcohol use problems among teenagers, with specific concerns about their utility across different subgroups. In the current study, we examined whether particular racial/ethnic or gender subgroups varied in the incidence and onset age of(More)
Mental health generally and depression in particular have been repeatedly shown to vary in relation to gender, socioeconomic status, marital status, and age. These status differences may be linked to mental health because they tend to define important differences in stress exposure and in the availability of coping resources. This paper examines the(More)
To examine variations in the manifestation of depressive symptomatology across racial/ethnic groups, analyses of differential item functioning (DIF) on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) were separately conducted for representative samples of young adults in the following groups: African-Americans (n = 434), Hispanics born in the(More)
The authors hypothesized that a history of adversities, whether they were objectively traumatic or not, predicts risk for 1st onset of PTSD. Survival analysis in a community sample of 1,803 young adults revealed that risk is associated with retrospectively reported adverse experiences that occurred in years prior to the focal traumatic event. Analyses(More)
This paper addresses the hypothesis that gender, age, marital status, and SES matter for depression partly because of associated differences in the availability and/or impact of the personal resources of mastery and self-esteem. It is argued that findings indicating that the social distributions of these resources complement those for depression would(More)
OBJECTIVE Negative life events have been implicated in the development of alcohol dependence. This paper tests whether cumulative exposure to such stressors significantly predicts risk of DSM-IV alcohol dependence disorder in young adults. We also provide descriptive data that characterizes the patterns of cumulative exposure to such events and rates of(More)
It seems well established that exposure to social stress, including acculturation stress, increases risk for psychiatric and substance problems, and that the disadvantaged experience higher levels of such exposure. Such evidence points to the expectation that immigrant minority groups must be at elevated risk relative to their native-born counterparts. That(More)