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Monoclonal antibodies that bind to surface membranes of developing schistosomula and/or cercarial tails were generated from mice immunized with living schistosome eggs or soluble egg antigen. These monoclonal antibodies detected at least three different surface epitopes. One surface antigen detected by anti-egg monoclonal antibody EG1C4B1 (E.1) persisted on(More)
BACKGROUND In the Philippines, the current national control strategy for schistosomiasis is annual mass drug administration (MDA) with 40 mg/kg of praziquantel in all schistosomiasis-endemic villages with a prevalence ≥10%. METHODS A cross-sectional survey of schistosomiasis was conducted in 2012 on 18 221 individuals residing in 22(More)
Parasitic worms express host-like glycans to attenuate the immune response of human hosts. The therapeutic potential of this immunomodulatory mechanism in controlling the metabolic dysfunction that is associated with chronic inflammation remains unexplored. We demonstrate here that administration of lacto-N-fucopentaose III (LNFPIII), a Lewis(X)-containing(More)
Select The Many Faces of Insulin Resistance Low-grade inflammation in the liver and adipose tissue drives systemic insulin resistance. Recent reports, discussed in this Select, identify new pathways used by immune cell populations to modulate chronic metabolic inflammation that results from obesity-associated insulin resistance. Parasitic worms such as(More)
BACKGROUND Schistosomiasis mansoni is a debilitating and sometimes fatal disease. Accurate diagnosis plays a key role in patient management and infection control. However, currently available parasitological methods are laborious and lack sensitivity. The selection of target antigen candidates has turned out to be a promising tool for the development of(More)
The cause of zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines is Schistosoma japonicum, which infects up to 46 mammalian hosts, including humans and bovines. In China, water buffaloes have been identified as major reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis japonica, contributing up to 75% of human transmission. In the Philippines, water buffaloes (carabao; Bubalus(More)
BACKGROUND The Philippines has a population of approximately 103 million people, of which 6.7 million live in schistosomiasis-endemic areas with 1.8 million people being at risk of infection with Schistosoma japonicum. Although the country-wide prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica in the Philippines is relatively low, the prevalence of schistosomiasis can(More)
The TCR-associated protein CD3zeta plays a major role in regulating the state of responsiveness to peptide-MHC complexes on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. In this paper the requirement of CD3zeta in the generation of cytotoxic T cells was compared with its requirement in cytokine gene activation in two mutant mice: ZKO mice with a disrupted(More)
The milk pentasaccharide LNFPIII has therapeutic action for metabolic and autoimmune diseases and prolongs transplant survival in mice when presented as a neoglycoconjugate. Within LNFPIII is the Lewisx trisaccharide, expressed by many helminth parasites. In humans, LNFPIII is found in human milk and also known as stage-specific embryonic antigen-1.(More)
BACKGROUND Current available methods for diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni lack sufficient sensitivity, which results in underreporting of infectious in areas of low endemicity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We developed three novel diagnostic methodologies for the direct detection of schistosome infection in serum samples. These three new methods(More)