Donald A. Enarson

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The pre-chemotherapy literature documented the natural history of tuberculosis in childhood. These disease descriptions remain invaluable for guiding public health policy and research, as the introduction of effective chemotherapy radically changed the history of disease. Specific high-risk groups were identified. Primary infection before 2 years of age(More)
RATIONALE In a high-tuberculosis (TB) incidence area of Cape Town, South Africa, there is a very high rate of unexplained recurrent TB. The incidence of new bacteriologically confirmed disease in the area is 313 per 100,000 individuals. OBJECTIVE To estimate the rate of recurrent TB attributable to reinfection after successful treatment. METHODS All(More)
Correct and rapid diagnosis is essential in the management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). In this population-based study of 61 patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis, we evaluated the frequency of mutations and compared the performance of genotypic (mutation analysis by dot blot hybridization) and phenotypic (indirect proportion method)(More)
BACKGROUND Treatment of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is lengthy, toxic, expensive, and has generally poor outcomes. We undertook an individual patient data meta-analysis to assess the impact on outcomes of the type, number, and duration of drugs used to treat MDR-TB. METHODS AND FINDINGS Three recent systematic reviews were used to identify(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess the strength of evidence in published articles for an association between smoking and passive exposure to tobacco smoke and various manifestations and outcomes of tuberculosis (TB). Clinicians and public health workers working to fight TB may not see a role for themselves in tobacco control because the association between tobacco and TB(More)
BACKGROUND For decades it has been assumed that postprimary tuberculosis is usually caused by reactivation of endogenous infection rather than by a new, exogenous infection. METHODS We performed DNA fingerprinting with restriction-fragment-length polymorphism analysis on pairs of isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from 16 compliant patients who had a(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis control programs place an almost exclusive emphasis on adults with sputum smear-positive tuberculosis, because they are most infectious. However, children contribute a significant proportion of the global tuberculosis caseload and experience considerable tuberculosis-related morbidity and mortality, but few children in endemic areas(More)
Molecular epidemiological studies suggest that particular Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains have an enhanced capacity to spread within a community. One strain, the Beijing genotype, has been associated with outbreaks in a number of communities throughout the world. IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was performed on M.(More)
BACKGROUND A WHO-recommended 8-month regimen based on ethambutol and isoniazid was evaluated in a randomised clinical trial against a 6-month standard regimen. METHODS 1355 patients with newly diagnosed smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis were randomly assigned one of three regimens: daily ethambutol, isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide for 2(More)