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Avirulence gene D (avrD) in strain PT23 of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) specifies the production of syringolides, which are elicitors of plant defense reactions. An 83-kb indigenous plasmid (pPT23B) that carries avrD has been mapped and characterized and a putative par region was identified. pPT23B contains a large amount of DNA that is repeated in(More)
Twenty strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato were examined for the presence of plasmid DNA. P. syringae pv. tomato plasmids were grouped into five size classes: class A ranged from 95 to 103 kilobases (kb); class B ranged from 71 to 83 kb; class C ranged from 59 to 67 kb; class D ranged from 37 to 39 kb; and class E was 29 kb. All strains contained at(More)
Copper-resistant strains of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato accumulate copper and develop blue colonies on copper-containing media. Three of the protein products of the copper-resistance operon (cop) were characterized to provide an understanding of the copper-resistance mechanism and its relationship to copper accumulation. The Cop proteins, CopA (72(More)
Copper-resistant and copper-sensitive strains of Pseudomonas syringae, as well as many other pseudomonads, contain chromosomal DNA homologous to the plasmid-borne copper resistance operon (copABCD). cop homologs were cloned from the chromosome of P. syringae pv. tomato PT12.2, which had an elevated level of resistance to copper compared with typical(More)
Copper ions are essential for bacteria but can cause a number of toxic cellular effects if levels of free ions are not controlled. Investigations of copper-resistant bacteria have revealed several mechanisms, mostly plasmid-determined, that prevent cellular uptake of high levels of free copper ions. However, these studies have also revealed that bacteria(More)
Pseudomonads from environmental sources vary widely in their sensitivity to cadmium, but the basis for this resistance is largely uncharacterized. A chromosomal fragment encoding cadmium resistance was cloned from Pseudomonas putida 06909, a rhizosphere bacterium, and sequence analysis revealed two divergently transcribed genes, cadA and cadR. CadA was(More)
Specific induction of the copper resistance operon (cop) promoter from Pseudomonas syringae was measured by beta-galactosidase production from a cop promoter-lacZ fusion. Induction of the cop promoter in P. syringae pv. syringae required trans-acting factors from copper resistance plasmid pPT23D, from which cop was originally cloned. Tn5 mutagenesis of(More)
ABSTRACT Xylella fastidiosa is an insect-borne, xylem-limited pathogenic bacterium that has been associated with a rise in incidence of diseased landscape ornamentals in southern California. The objective of this study was to genetically characterize strains isolated from ornamental hosts to understand their distribution and identity. Strains of X.(More)
The copper resistance (cop) operon promoter (P cop ) of Pseudomonas syringae is copper-inducible, and requires the regulatory genes copRS. Sequence analysis revealed that CopR has significant homology with other known activator proteins from bacterial two-component regulatory systems. In the present study we characterized P cop and its interaction with(More)
Copper-resistant strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria were previously shown to carry plasmid-borne copper resistance genes related to the cop and pco operons of Pseudomonas syringae and Escherichia coli, respectively. However, instead of the two-component (copRS and pcoRS) systems determining copper-inducible expression of the operons in P.(More)