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Distance sampling is a survey technique for estimating the abundance or density of wild animal populations. Detection probabilities of animals inherently differ by species, age class, habitats, or sex. By incorporating the change in an observer's ability to detect a particular class of animals as a function of distance, distance sampling leads to density(More)
BACKGROUND Persistent inflammation has been proposed to contribute to various stages in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Interleukin-6 receptor (IL6R) signalling propagates downstream inflammation cascades. To assess whether this pathway is causally relevant to coronary heart disease, we studied a functional genetic variant known to affect IL6R(More)
OBJECTIVE To clarify associations of fish consumption and long chain omega 3 fatty acids with risk of cerebrovascular disease for primary and secondary prevention. DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES Studies published before September 2012 identified through electronic searches using Medline, Embase, BIOSIS, and Science Citation(More)
BACKGROUND Previous Mendelian randomization studies have suggested that, while low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and triglycerides are causally implicated in coronary artery disease (CAD) risk, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) may not be, with causal effect estimates compatible with the null. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS The causal effects of(More)
Dysmenorrhea is a common chronic pelvic pain syndrome affecting women of childbearing potential. Family studies suggest that genetic background influences the severity of dysmenorrhea, but genetic predisposition and molecular mechanisms underlying dysmenorrhea are not understood. In this study, we conduct the first genome-wide association study to identify(More)
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