Don W Cleveland

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Dominant mutations in superoxide dismutase cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a progressive paralytic disease characterized by loss of motor neurons. With the use of mice carrying a deletable mutant gene, expression within motor neurons was shown to be a primary determinant of disease onset and of an early phase of disease progression. Diminishing(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a late-onset progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons. The etiology of most ALS cases remains unknown, but 2% of instances are due to mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Since sporadic and familial ALS affects the same neurons with similar pathology, it is hoped that therapies effective in(More)
The centromere is responsible for accurate chromosome segregation. Mammalian centromeres are specified epigenetically, with all active centromeres containing centromere-specific chromatin in which CENP-A replaces histone H3 within the nucleosome. The proteins responsible for assembly of human CENP-A into centromeric nucleosomes during the G1 phase of the(More)
High levels of familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)-linked SOD1 mutants G93A and G37R were previously shown to mediate disease in mice through an acquired toxic property. We report here that even low levels of another mutant, G85R, cause motor neuron disease characterized by an extremely rapid clinical progression, without changes in SOD1 activity.(More)
Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause a subset of cases of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Four lines of mice accumulating one of these mutant proteins (G37R) develop severe, progressive motor neuron disease. At lower levels of mutant accumulation, pathology is restricted to lower motor neurons, whereas higher levels cause more severe(More)
The basic element for chromosome inheritance, the centromere, is epigenetically determined in mammals. The prime candidate for specifying centromere identity is the array of nucleosomes assembled with CENP-A, the centromere-specific histone H3 variant. Here, we show that CENP-A nucleosomes directly recruit a proximal CENP-A nucleosome associated complex(More)
Centromeres direct chromosomal inheritance by nucleating assembly of the kinetochore, a large multiprotein complex required for microtubule attachment during mitosis. Centromere identity in humans is epigenetically determined, with no DNA sequence either necessary or sufficient. A prime candidate for the epigenetic mark is assembly into centromeric(More)
We used cross-linking and immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing to identify binding sites in 6,304 genes as the brain RNA targets for TDP-43, an RNA binding protein that, when mutated, causes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Massively parallel sequencing and splicing-sensitive junction arrays revealed that levels of 601 mRNAs were(More)
Breakthrough discoveries identifying common genetic causes for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) have transformed our view of these disorders. They share unexpectedly similar signatures, including dysregulation in common molecular players including TDP-43, FUS/TLS, ubiquilin-2, VCP, and expanded hexanucleotide repeats(More)
Although Charcot described amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) more than 130 years ago, the mechanism underlying the characteristic selective degeneration and death of motor neurons in this common adult motor neuron disease has remained a mystery. There is no effective remedy for this progressive, fatal disorder. Modern genetics has now identified mutations(More)