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We have detected deletions of portions of the Y chromosome long arm in 12 of 89 men with azoospermia (no sperm in semen). No Y deletions were detected in their male relatives or in 90 other fertile males. The 12 deletions overlap, defining a region likely to contain one or more genes required for spermatogenesis (the Azoospermia Factor, AZF). Deletion of(More)
CTLA-4, a negative regulator of T cell function, was found to associate with the T cell receptor (TCR) complex zeta chain in primary T cells. The association of TCRzeta with CTLA-4, reconstituted in 293 transfectants, was enhanced by p56(lck)-induced tyrosine phosphorylation. Coexpression of the CTLA-4-associated tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-2, resulted in(More)
We have developed a technique, called genomic subtraction, for isolating the DNA that is absent in deletion mutants. The method removes from wild-type DNA the sequences that are present in both the wild-type and the deletion mutant genomes. The DNA that corresponds to the deleted region remains. Enrichment for the deleted sequences is achieved by allowing a(More)
Infections are thought to be important in the pathogenesis of many heart diseases. Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) has been linked to chronic dilated cardiomyopathy, a common cause of progressive heart disease, heart failure and sudden death. We show here that the sarcoma (Src) family kinase Lck (p56lck) is required for efficient CVB3 replication in T-cell lines(More)
Acetolactate synthase (ALS) catalyzes the first committed step in the synthesis of branched-chain amino acids. In green plants and fungi, ALS is encoded by a nuclear gene whose product is targeted to plastids (in plants) or to mitochondria (in fungi). In red algae, the gene is plastid-encoded. We have determined the complete sequence of nucleus-encoded ALS(More)
Volvox carteri is a multicellular eukaryotic green alga composed of about 2000 cells of only two differentiated types: somatic and germ line. To understand how embryonic cells are assigned either to somatic or germ line fates, we are investigating the regulation of transcripts that are abundant in only one cell type. Here we report the identity of three(More)
Although the therapeutic actions of glucocorticoids are largely attributed to their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects, they have been implicated in enhancing tissue and cellular protection. In this study, we demonstrate that dexamethasone significantly enhances viability of IEC-18 rat small intestinal cells against oxidant-induced stress in a(More)
We developed a method, "RFLP subtraction," that isolates large numbers of unique sequence restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in a single experiment. The technique purifies small restriction fragments from one genome containing sequences that reside on large fragments in a related genome. We first isolate samples containing the small(More)
We present the sequence of full-length chicken triosephosphate isomerase (D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate ketol-isomerase, EC 5.3.1.1) mRNA based on the analysis of cDNA and genomic clones. To isolate cDNA clones encoding the enzyme, we screened a muscle cDNA library with radioactively labeled cDNA made from RNA that had been enriched by immunoselection of(More)
We have replaced the glutamic acid-165 at the active site of chicken triosephosphate isomerase with an aspartic acid residue using site-directed mutagenesis. Expression of the mutant protein in a strain of Escherichia coli that lacks the bacterial isomerase results in a complementation phenotype that is intermediate between strains that have no isomerase(More)