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Previous work has amply demonstrated divided attention "costs" both in single-task multistimulus visual processing and in performance of multiple simple tasks; however, the relationship between the two has not been clarified. This article postulates two distinct causes: (1) visual processes that commence without delays and proceed simultaneously, but show(More)
In the world of design, the term "affordance" has taken on a life far beyond the original meaning. It might help if we return to the original definition. Let me try to clarify the definition of the term and its many uses. AFFORDANCE The word "affordance" was originally invented by the perceptual psychologist J. J. Gibson (1977, 1979) to refer to the(More)
David Peakall and co-workers pioneered innovative approaches that utilized extra-embryonic membranes to assess accumulation of organochlorine pesticides in eggs. This technique provided the foundation for an entire line of research to improve non-lethal methods for assessing contaminant exposure in oviparous wildlife. Currently, analysis of chorioallantoic(More)
Want to know what I think the next UI breakthroughs will be? Here are two, both of which can be considered a return to fundamentals: 1. Command line languages 2. Physicality: the return to physical devices, where we control things by physical movement ; turning, moving, and manipulating appropriate mechanical devices This column discusses the return to(More)
Studies of IT for development have often identiªed the importance of the usability of IT systems and the need for IT systems to be matched to the needs of host communities. These two issues are central concerns for the discipline of Human–Computer Interaction (HCI), or Interaction Design. Within HCI and Interaction Design, user-centered design is just one(More)
Guidelines for usability test tasks: engage participants by writing task scenarios that are realistic, encourage an action, and don't give away how the interface should be used. The most effective way of understanding what works and what doesn't in an interface is to watch people use it. This is the essence of usability testing. When the right participants(More)
A novel time, space, and energy-resolved x-ray spectrometer has been developed which produces, in a single snapshot, a broadband and relatively calibrated spectrum of the x-ray emission from a high-energy density laboratory plasma. The opacity zipper spectrometer (OZSPEC-1) records a nearly continuous spectrum for x-ray energies from 240 to 5800 eV in a(More)