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To evaluate nonpharmacologic interventions, caregivers (65 women, 38 men) and their dementia-diagnosed spouses (patients) were randomized to one of four treatment programs (cognitive stimulation, dyadic counseling, dual supportive seminar, and early-stage day care) or to a wait-list control group. Assessments occurred initially and at postintervention (3(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in social support of spousal caregivers of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). The sample consisted of 37 male and 28 female caregivers of individuals with MS. It was found that female caregivers scored significantly higher than males on the total number of resources available, perceived(More)
Four experiments explored readers' mental models of described scenes. Environments were described from one of two perspectives, an internal perspective of an observer within the scene, surrounded by objects, or an external perspective of an observer outside the scene, with objects in front. Subjects read narratives describing a scene and were probed for(More)
Research supports that adaptation in young adulthood (e.g., employment status and educational attainment) is influenced by a number of risk and protective factors which are distal (contextual and farther removed from outcomes) and proximal (individual and intermediary to outcomes). The degree to which proximal risk and protection mediates the relation(More)
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