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Bacillus anthracis secretes two critical virulence factors, lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET). In this study, we show that murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC) infected with B. anthracis strains secreting ET exhibit a very different cytokine secretion pattern than DC infected with B. anthracis strains secreting LT, both toxins, or a(More)
Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, an often fatal infection of humans and animals. The virulence of this pathogen is thought to depend on a number of secreted proteins, including the MprA metalloprotease. We observed that MprA is produced upon entry into the stationary phase, when the cell density is high, and this prompted us(More)
Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia, a zoonotic disease often transmitted to humans by infected animals. The lack of useful specific genetic tools has long hampered the study of F. tularensis subspecies. We identified and characterized two new plasmids, pF242 and pF243, isolated from Francisella philomiragia strains ATCC 25016 and(More)
Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei are two highly pathogenic bacteria, responsible for melioidosis and glanders, respectively. The two are closely related and can also be mistaken for B. thailandensis, a nonpathogenic species. To improve their differential identification, we describe a hydrolysis probe-based real-time PCR method using the uneven(More)
Inhalational anthrax is a life-threatening infectious disease of considerable concern, especially because anthrax is an emerging bioterrorism agent. The exact mechanisms leading to a severe clinical form through the inhalational route are still unclear, particularly how immobile spores are captured in the alveoli and transported to the lymph nodes in the(More)
Inhalational anthrax is a life-threatening infectious disease of considerable concern, especially as a potential bioterrorism agent. Progress is gradually being made towards understanding the mechanisms used by Bacillus anthracis to escape the immune system and to induce severe septicaemia associated with toxaemia and leading to death. Recent advances in(More)
OBJECTIVES Fifty isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei and 15 isolates of Burkholderia mallei were tested for their susceptibilities to 35 antimicrobial agents, including agents not previously tested against these bacteria. METHODS MICs were determined by agar dilution in Mueller-Hinton medium. RESULTS Among the antibiotics tested, lower MICs were(More)
The anthrax lethal toxin (LT) consists of two subunits, the protective antigen (PA) and the lethal factor (LF), and is essential for anthrax pathogenesis. Several recombinant antibodies directed against PA and intended for medical use have been obtained, but none against LF, despite the recommendations of anthrax experts. Here we describe an anti-LF(More)
Human anthrax infection cannot always be treated successfully by antibiotics, as highlighted by recent bioterrorist attacks; thus, adjunct therapies are clearly needed for the future. There is a particular need to further develop adjunct therapies that can neutralize secreted toxins, such as antibodies directed towards the 83-kDa protective antigen(More)
Burkholderia is a bacterial genus comprising several pathogenic species, including two species highly pathogenic for humans, B. pseudomallei and B. mallei. B. thailandensis is a weakly pathogenic species closely related to both B. pseudomallei and B. mallei. It is used as a study model. These bacteria are able to exhibit multiple resistance mechanisms(More)