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Activation of interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor (IL-1R), Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and TLR4 triggers NF-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent signaling, thereby initiating immune responses. Tollip has been implicated as a negative regulator of NF-kappaB signaling triggered by these receptors in in vitro studies. Here, deficient mice(More)
Helicobacter pylori virulence factors have been suggested to be important in determining the outcome of infection. The H. pylori adhesion protein BabA2 is thought to play a crucial role in bacterial colonization and in induction of severe gastric inflammation, particularly in combination with expression of CagA and VacA. However, the influence of these(More)
BACKGROUND Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) therapy is effective in treating some Crohn's disease (CD) patients and protects mice from colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) administration. However, its mechanisms of action remain elusive. We hypothesized that GM-CSF affects intestinal mucosal repair. METHODS DSS colitic(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Despite the proven ability of immunization to reduce Helicobacter infection in mouse models, the precise mechanism of protection has remained elusive. This study explores the possibility that interleukin (IL)-17 plays a role in the reduction of Helicobacter infection following vaccination of wild-type animals or in spontaneous reduction of(More)
NLR family apoptosis inhibitory proteins (NAIPs) belong to both the Nod-like receptor (NLR) and the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) families. NAIPs are known to form an inflammasome with NLRC4, but other in vivo functions remain unexplored. Using mice deficient for all NAIP paralogs (Naip1-6(Δ/Δ)), we show that NAIPs are key regulators of colorectal(More)
BACKGROUND The intestinal epithelium accommodates with a myriad of commensals to maintain immunological homeostasis, but the underlying mechanisms regulating epithelial responsiveness to flora-derived signals remain poorly understood. Herein, we sought to determine the role of the Toll/interleukin (IL)-1 receptor regulator Toll-interacting protein (Tollip)(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Despite the proven ability of immunization to prevent Helicobacter infection in mouse models, the precise mechanism of protection has remained elusive. METHODS We explored the cellular events associated with Helicobacter clearance from the stomach following vaccination by flow cytometry analysis and histological and molecular studies. (More)
Mutations in the Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella lpxM gene have been shown to result in strains which grow normally and which produce a non-myristoylated lipopolysaccharide (nmLPS) with strongly reduced endotoxicity. Using homologous recombination, we inactivated the lpxM gene in BL21 (DE3), a strain widely used for the production of recombinant(More)
Nasal administration of vaccines is an attractive approach which offers several significant advantages over traditional intramuscular vaccine delivery. These advantages include easier administration and induction of immune responses in the mucosal secretions of the body. In this study we describe a new potent nasal adjuvant, dimethyldioctadecylammonium(More)
The three non-allelic gld, lpr and mev mutations in the mouse all lead to profound immunodeficiency besides a splenomegaly and a generalized autoimmunity. Spleen cells from young B6 gld, B6 lpr and B6 mev mice all display a decreased proliferative response to the T-cell mitogen concanavalin A (ConA), but the nature of the deficiency seems very different. No(More)