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Virtual reality (VR) is a powerful tool for simulating aspects of the real world. The success of VR is thought to depend on its ability to evoke a sense of "being there", that is, the feeling of "Presence". In view of the rapid progress in the development of increasingly more sophisticated virtual environments (VE), the importance of understanding the(More)
Anterograde transport of tritiated amino acids (leucine, lysine, and proline) was used to examine the spinal projections of respiratory premotor neurons in the ventral respiratory group (VRG) of cats. This population of neurons corresponds anatomically with the nucleus ambiguus-retroambigualis. Small volumes (20 to 50 nl) of tritiated amino acids were(More)
The major purpose of the present study was to determine the origin of the serotonin-containing neurons which project to the rostral ventral respiratory group in the rat. This was accomplished by using the technique of retrograde tracing with rhodamine-labeled latex microspheres (beads) combined with immunochemistry. The rhodamine-labeled beads were(More)
The responses in respiratory outflow resulting from microstimulation and successive microlesions of the dorsal (DRG) and ventral (VRG) respiratory groups of neurons in the brainstem were studied in anesthetized, paralyzed, artificially ventilated cats. Microstimulation (2 to 120 Hz; 5 to 50 microA; 100 musec pulse duration) at almost every point within the(More)
1. The involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in the respiratory function of the pons was examined by microinjecting NO synthase-related drugs into discrete regions of the pontine respiratory group (PRG) in decerebrate and decerebellate cats. 2. Microinjection of N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, inhibitor of NO synthase), but not D-NNA (the inactive enantiomer),(More)
The local neural circuitry underlying the control of breathing was studied by injecting nanoliter volumes of excitatory amino acids into discrete regions of cat brain stem. Experiments were performed on chloralose-urethane anesthetized, vagotomized, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated cats. Phrenic, intercostal, and recurrent laryngeal nerve discharges(More)
Retrograde tracing (rhodamine beads) combined with immunohistochemistry was used to determine the origin of neurons containing substance P that project to the rostral ventral respiratory group in the rat. Double-labeled neurons (rhodamine beads plus substance P immunoreactivity) were found in the midline caudal raphe nuclei (raphe obscurus, raphe pallidus,(More)
This study tested the hypothesis that selective antagonism of excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors within the ventral respiratory group (VRG) would induce changes in both respiratory rhythm and pattern. In the paralyzed, decerebrate, vagotomized and ventilated cat, baseline values for respiratory (Ttot), inspiratory (Ti), and expiratory (Te) durations and(More)
Periodic breathing of the Biot or cluster type was induced in spontaneously breathing, pentobarbital anesthetized cats by placing bilateral lesions within the pneumotaxic system of the rostral pons. Control lesions positioned outside of the critical nuclei never resulted in Biot breathing. The periodic pattern was characterized by clusters of breaths which(More)