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Difficulties with inducing sterile and long lasting protective immunity against malaria with subunit vaccines has renewed interest in vaccinations with attenuated Plasmodium parasites. Immunizations with sporozoites that are attenuated by radiation (RAS) can induce strong protective immunity both in humans and rodent models of malaria. Recently, in rodent(More)
An in vitro model was developed to study the hepatic phase of Plasmodium falciparum, the only malaria parasite lethal to man. Primary cultures of human hepatocytes were inoculated with sporozoites of Brazilian and African strains of P. falciparum. On days 1 through 7 after inoculation examination of fluorescence-labeled and Giemsa-stained preparations(More)
The Plasmodium-infected hepatocyte has been considered necessary to prime the immune responses leading to sterile protection after vaccination with attenuated sporozoites. However, it has recently been demonstrated that priming also occurs in the skin. We wished to establish if sterile protection could be obtained in the absence of priming by infected(More)
PURPOSE PP2A is a serine/threonine phosphatase critical to physiological processes, including apoptosis. Cell penetrating peptides are molecules that can translocate into cells without causing membrane damage. Our goal was to develop cell-penetrating fusion peptides specifically designed to disrupt the caspase-9/PP2A interaction and evaluate their(More)
Infection of hepatocytes by Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites requires the host tetraspanin CD81. CD81 is also predicted to be a coreceptor, along with scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI), for hepatitis C virus. Using SR-BI-knockout, SR-BI-hypomorphic and SR-BI-transgenic primary hepatocytes, as well as specific SR-BI-blocking antibodies, we demonstrate that(More)
Most malaria drug development focuses on parasite stages detected in red blood cells, even though, to achieve eradication, next-generation drugs active against both erythrocytic and exo-erythrocytic forms would be preferable. We applied a multifactorial approach to a set of >4000 commercially available compounds with previously demonstrated blood-stage(More)
Cerebral malaria, one of the most serious complications of Plasmodium falciparum infection, is characterized by the sequestration of parasitized red blood cells (PRBCs) in cerebral microvascular beds. The precise mechanisms involved in the onset of neuropathology remain unknown, but parasite sequestration in the brain, metabolic disturbances, and host(More)
Retention of poorly deformable red blood cells (RBCs) by the human spleen has been recognized as a critical determinant of pathogenesis in hereditary spherocytosis, malaria, and other RBC disorders. Using an ex vivo perfusion system, we had previously shown that retention of Plasmodium falciparum-infected RBCs (Pf-RBCs) occur in the splenic red pulp,(More)
Malaria is still the world's major important parasitic disease and is responsible for the death of more people than any other communicable disease except tuberculosis. A major change in recent years has been the recognition that severe malaria, predominantly caused by Plasmodium falciparum, is a complex multi-system disorder presenting with a range of(More)
BACKGROUND Amongst the Plasmodium species in humans, only P. vivax and P. ovale produce latent hepatic stages called hypnozoites, which are responsible for malaria episodes long after a mosquito bite. Relapses contribute to increased morbidity, and complicate malaria elimination programs. A single drug effective against hypnozoites, primaquine, is(More)