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In Madagascar, Newcastle disease (ND) has become enzootic after the first documented epizootics in 1946, with recurrent annual outbreaks causing mortality up to 40%. Four ND viruses recently isolated in Madagascar were genotypically and pathotypically characterised. By phylogenetic inference based on the F and HN genes, and also full-genome sequence(More)
Ehrlichia ruminantium is the causative agent of heartwater, a major tick-borne disease of livestock in Africa that has been introduced in the Caribbean and is threatening to emerge and spread on the American mainland. We sequenced the complete genomes of two strains of E. ruminantium of differing phenotypes, strains Gardel (Erga; 1,499,920 bp), from the(More)
We derive a new method for solving nonlinear blind source separation (BSS) problems by exploiting second-order statistics in a kernel induced feature space. This paper extends a new and efficient closed-form linear algorithm to the nonlinear domain using the kernel trick originally applied in support vector machines (SVMs). This technique could likewise be(More)
Ehrlichia ruminantium, the agent of cowdriosis transmitted by Amblyomma ticks, presents an extensive genetic and antigenic diversity of key importance for vaccine formulation. Two means of nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting were developed to conduct molecular epidemiology studies in the Caribbean and Africa. The first used a conserved DNA(More)
The major antigenic protein 1 (MAP1) of the tick-borne rickettsial pathogen Cowdria ruminantium is encoded by a multigene family containing conserved and variable genes. The part of a locus containing the map1 multigene family that was characterized contained three homologous, but non-identical map1 genes, designated map1-2, map1-1, and map1. Reverse(More)
BACKGROUND Whole genome transcriptomic analysis is a powerful approach to elucidate the molecular mechanisms controlling the pathogenesis of obligate intracellular bacteria. However, the major hurdle resides in the low quantity of prokaryotic mRNAs extracted from host cells. Our model Ehrlichia ruminantium (ER), the causative agent of heartwater, is(More)
For some moth species, especially those closely interrelated and sympatric, recognizing a specific pheromone component concentration ratio is essential for males to successfully locate conspecific females. We propose and determine the properties of a minimalist competition-based feed-forward neuronal model capable of detecting a certain ratio of pheromone(More)
A bagging ensemble consists of a set of classifiers trained independently and combined by a majority vote. Such a combination improves generalization performance but can require large amounts of memory and computation, a serious drawback for addressing portable real-time pattern recognition applications. We report here a compact three-dimensional (3D)(More)
Event-driven strategies have been used to simulate spiking neural networks exactly. Previous work is limited to linear integrate-and-fire neurons. In this note, we extend event-driven schemes to a class of nonlinear integrate-and-fire models. Results are presented for the quadratic integrate-and-fire model with instantaneous or exponential synaptic(More)
In Slow Feature Analysis (SFA [1]), it has been demonstrated that high-order invariant properties can be extracted by projecting inputs into a nonlinear space and computing the slowest changing features in this space; this has been proposed as a simple general model for learning nonlinear invariances in the visual system. However , this method is highly(More)