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The interaction between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and RNA silencing pathways is complex and multifaceted. Essential for efficient viral transcription and supporting Tat-mediated transactivation of viral gene expression, the trans-activation responsive (TAR) element is a structured RNA located at the 5' end of all transcripts derived from(More)
Platelets have a crucial role in the maintenance of hemostasis as well as in thrombosis and vessel occlusion, which underlie stroke and acute coronary syndromes. Anucleate platelets contain mRNAs and are capable of protein synthesis, raising the issue of how these mRNAs are regulated. Here we show that human platelets harbor an abundant and diverse array of(More)
The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a great revolution in biology. This technology allows the modification of genes in vitro and in vivo in a wide variety of living organisms. In most Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients, expression of dystrophin (DYS) protein is disrupted because exon deletions result in a frame shift. We present here the CRISPR-induced(More)
Encoded by the genome of most eukaryotes examined so far, microRNAs (miRNAs) are small approximately 21-nucleotide (nt) noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) derived from a biosynthetic cascade involving sequential processing steps executed by the ribonucleases (RNases) III Drosha and Dicer. Following their recent identification, miRNAs have rapidly taken the center(More)
Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been shown to effectively downregulate gene expression in human cells, giving them potential to eradicate disease. Prospects for clinical applications are discussed in this review, along with an overview of recent history and our current understanding of siRNAs used for therapeutic application in human diseases, such as(More)
In mammalian cells, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) has been reported to be part of a microRNA (miRNA)-containing effector ribonucleoprotien (RNP) complex believed to mediate translational control of specific mRNAs. Here, using recombinant proteins, we demonstrate that human FMRP can act as a miRNA acceptor protein for the ribonuclease Dicer and(More)
With potentially up to 1000 microRNAs (miRNAs) present in the human genome, altogether regulating the expression of thousands of genes, one can anticipate that miRNAs will play a significant role in health and disease. Deregulated protein expression induced by a dysfunctional miRNA-based regulatory system is thus expected to lead to the development of(More)
Recent experimental evidences support the existence of an increasingly complex and multifaceted interaction between viruses and the microRNA-guided RNA silencing machinery of human cells. The discovery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which are designed to mediate cleavage of specific messenger RNAs (mRNAs), prompted virologists to establish therapeutic(More)
Within the past few years, microRNAs (miRNAs) and other noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have emerged as elements with critically high importance in posttranscriptional control of cellular and, more recently, viral processes. Endogenously produced by a component of the miRNA-guided RNA silencing machinery known as Dicer, miRNAs are known to control messenger RNA(More)
The transactivating response (TAR) element of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the source of two functional microRNAs (miRNAs), miR-TAR-5p and miR-TAR-3p. The objective of this study was to characterize the post-transcriptional regulation of host messenger RNAs (mRNAs) relevant to HIV-1 pathogenesis by HIV-1 TAR miRNAs. We demonstrated that(More)