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Studies with ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA1)-deficient mice have been critical in demonstrating the relation between ABCA1 expression, cellular lipid efflux, and HDL metabolism. The phenotype of the ABCA1-deficient mouse parallels the phenotype observed in human Tangier disease, including substantial reductions in both apolipoprotein B and(More)
The serine/threonine kinase Akt/PKB plays key roles in the regulation of cell growth, survival, and metabolism. It remains unclear, however, whether the functions of individual Akt/PKB isoforms are distinct. To investigate the function of Akt2/PKBbeta, mice lacking this isoform were generated. Both male and female Akt2/PKBbeta-null mice exhibit mild growth(More)
UNLABELLED Serum aminotransferases have been the clinical standard for evaluating liver injury for the past 50-60 years. These tissue enzymes lack specificity, also tracking injury to other tissues. New technologies assessing tissue-specific messenger RNA (mRNA) release into blood should provide greater specificity and permit indirect assessment of gene(More)
The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) encodes a membrane protein that promotes cholesterol and phospholipid efflux from cells. Mutations in ABCA1 lead to HDL deficiency and tissue accumulation of macrophages in patients with homozygous Tangier disease. In this study, we examined whether the complete absence of ABCA1 or selected inactivation in(More)
This study directly demonstrates that cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is a sensitive, specific, and persistent biomarker in laboratory animals. Histopathological and pathophysiological cardiac changes in dogs, rats and mice correlated with increased serum cTnI with various cardiac inotropic agents, and cardiotoxic drugs and with cardiac arrhythmias, tachycardia,(More)
The identification, application, and qualification of safety biomarkers are becoming increasingly critical to successful drug discovery and development as companies are striving to develop drugs for difficult targets and for novel disease indications in a risk-adverse environment. Translational safety biomarkers that are minimally invasive and monitor(More)
In a two-year carcinogenicity study with administration of high doses of the partial nicotinic agonist varenicline (recently approved for smoking cessation), mediastinal hibernomas occurred in three male rats. To investigate potential mechanisms for partial and full nicotinic agonists to contribute to development of hibernomas, the effects of nicotine on(More)
Peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha is a ligand-activated transcriptional factor that regulates genes involved in lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis. PPAR-alpha activators, including fibrates, have been used to treat dyslipidemia for several decades. In contrast to their known effects on lipids, the pharmacological consequences of(More)
A 2-year-old Sprague-Dawley rat with hindlimb paralysis was diagnosed with a cerebral malignant astrocytoma. The distinctive feature of this astrocytoma was the presence of scattered binucleated cells that contained hypereosinophilic, 1-2 micro m in diameter, cytoplasmic granules. The neoplastic astrocytes stained positively for vimentin (VIM), lysozyme,(More)
OBJECTIVE Studies in bone marrow transplanted from ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-deficient mice into normal mice provides direct evidence that the absence of leukocyte ABCA1 exerts a marked proatherogenic effect independent of changes in plasma lipids, suggesting that ABCA1 plays a key role in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis and(More)