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PURPOSE To develop targeted molecular imaging probes for the noninvasive detection of breast cancer lymph node metastasis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Six cell surface or secreted markers were identified by expression profiling and from the literature as being highly expressed in breast cancer lymph node metastases. Two of these markers were cell surface carbonic(More)
Mice have been employed as models of cancer for over a century, providing significant advances in our understanding of this multifaceted family of diseases. In particular, orthotopic tumor xenograft mouse models are emerging as the preference for cancer research due to increased clinical relevance over subcutaneous mouse models. In the current study, we(More)
The tumor microenvironment is acidic as a consequence of upregulated glycolysis and poor perfusion and this acidity, in turn, promotes invasion and metastasis. We have recently demonstrated that chronic consumption of sodium bicarbonate increased tumor pH and reduced spontaneous and experimental metastases. This occurred without affecting systemic pH, which(More)
PURPOSE Hypoxia and acidosis develop in in situ tumors as cellular expansion increases the diffusion distance of substrates and metabolites from blood vessels deep to the basement membrane. Prior studies of breast and cervical cancer revealed that cellular adaptation to microenvironmental hypoxia and acidosis is associated with the transition from in situ(More)
Pathologic axillary lymph node (ALN) status is an important prognostic factor for staging breast cancer. Currently, status is determined by histopathology following surgical excision of sentinel lymph node(s), which is an invasive, time consuming, and costly procedure with potential morbidity to the patient. Here, we describe an imaging platform for(More)
Purpose: To develop targeted molecular imaging probes for the noninvasive detection of breast cancer lymph node metastasis. Experimental Design: Six cell surface or secreted markers were identified by expression profiling and from the literature as being highly expressed in breast cancer lymph node metastases. Two of these markers were cell surface carbonic(More)
Neutralizing tumor external acidity with oral buffers has proven effective for the prevention and inhibition of metastasis in several cancer mouse models. Solid tumors are highly acidic as a result of high glycolysis combined with an inadequate blood supply. Our prior work has shown that sodium bicarbonate, imidazole, and free-base (but not protonated)(More)
This unit describes a novel method for direct venous injection into mice that offers potentially significant advantages over commonly used mouse vein injection techniques. This is achieved via percutaneous needle placement into the mouse jugular vein under real-time B-mode ultrasound (US) imaging. Real-time US imaging of the injection process allows for(More)
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