Dominique Alfandari

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BACKGROUND Cranial neural-crest (CNC) cells originate from the lateral edge of the anterior neuroepithelium and migrate to form parts of the peripheral nervous system, muscles, cartilage, and bones of the face. Neural crest-cell migration involves the loss of adhesion from the surrounding neuroepithelium and a corresponding increase in cell adhesion to the(More)
Cell adhesion molecules such as cadherins alternate their expression throughout cranial neural crest (CNC) development, yet our understanding of the role of these molecules during CNC migration remains incomplete. The "mesenchymal" cadherin-11 is expressed in the CNC during migration yet prevents migration when overexpressed in the embryo, suggesting that a(More)
During early embryonic development, cranial neural crest cells emerge from the developing mid- and hindbrain. While numerous studies have focused on integrin involvement in trunk neural crest cell migration, comparatively little is known about mechanisms of cranial neural crest cell migration. We show that fibronectin, but not laminin, vitronectin, or type(More)
In this chapter, we describe procedures for the microsurgical removal of cells and tissues from early-stage embryos of the amphibian Xenopus laevis. Using simple culture conditions and artificial substrates, these preparations undergo a variety of quantifiable cellular behaviors that closely mimic cell migration in vivo. Two general methods are described.(More)
Metalloprotease-disintegrins are a family of membrane-anchored glycoproteins that have been implicated in diverse cellular processes, including fertilization and myoblast fusion, release of TNFalpha from the plasma membrane, and neurogenesis. Here we report the cloning of cDNAs encoding three full-length (xMDC9, xMDC11b, and xMDC13), and one partial(More)
ADAMs are membrane-anchored proteases that regulate cell behavior by proteolytically modifying the cell surface and ECM. Like other membrane-anchored proteases, ADAMs contain candidate "adhesive" domains downstream of their metalloprotease domains. The mechanism by which membrane-anchored cell surface proteases utilize these putative adhesive domains to(More)
ADAM19 is a member of the meltrin subfamily of ADAM metalloproteases. In Xenopus, ADAM19 is present as a maternal transcript. Zygotic expression starts during gastrulation and is apparent in the dorsal blastopore lip. ADAM19 expression through neurulation and tailbud formation becomes enriched in dorsal structures such as the neural tube, the notochord and(More)
BACKGROUND Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are hypothesized to degrade structurally important components of the laminar extracellular matrix (ECM) in horses with laminitis. OBJECTIVE To compare levels of expression of stromelysin-1 (MMP-3), collagenases (MMP-1, -13), and membrane type-MMPs (MMP-14, -15, -16), and the distribution of their ECM substrates,(More)
Cadherin receptors have a well-established role in cell-cell adhesion, cell polarization and differentiation. However, some cadherins also promote cell and tissue movement during embryonic development and tumour progression. In particular, cadherin-11 is upregulated during tumour and inflammatory cell invasion, but the mechanisms underlying cadherin-11(More)
Th1 and Th17 are subsets of CD4 + T cells or T helper cells (Th). Th cells are the major adaptive immune cells involved in inflammation during the development of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). MS is a neurodegenerative autoimmune disease and one mouse model of the disease is Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE). Development and differentiation of Th1(More)