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BACKGROUND Intrauterine growth retardation is a major predictor of child health in developing countries. OBJECTIVE We tested whether providing pregnant women with the UNICEF/WHO/UNU international multiple micronutrient preparation (UNIMMAP), rather than iron and folic acid alone, improved fetal growth and its correlates. DESIGN An intention-to-treat,(More)
BACKGROUND Low- and middle-income countries continue to experience a large burden of stunting; 148 million children were estimated to be stunted, around 30-40% of all children in 2011. In many of these countries, foetal growth restriction (FGR) is common, as is subsequent growth faltering in the first 2 years. Although there is agreement that stunting(More)
A study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate and risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Haiti's rural Artibonite Valley. Women attending antenatal services at Hospital Albert Schweitzer from October to December 1996 were tested for gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomonas, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Of the 476(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the secular trend of hip fracture incidence in Belgium between 2000 and 2007 and the concomitant change in the prescriptions of antiosteoporosis medications. METHODS The incidence of hip fractures and the number of prescriptions were determined using national databases. A logistic regression including years and 5-year age range was(More)
Infants in Tanzania are particularly vulnerable to under-nutrition during transition from breastmilk (as the only source of nourishment) to solid foods. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in Kilosa district in Tanzania to determine the feeding practices and the extent of wasting, stunting, and iron-deficiency anaemia. The study was done in two stages:(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe experiences, and identify factors associated with nonadherence to a single-dose nevirapine (SD-NVP) regimen for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in Rwanda. METHODS In April to May 2006, using a case-control design at 12 PMTCT sites, we interviewed HIV-infected women who did not adhere (n = 111) and who(More)
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted from March 2001 to March 2002 involving 309 infants who received either a processed complementary food (CF) or an unprocessed placebo from 6 to 12 mo of age. The groups were comparable in baseline characteristics. The study took place in Kilosa district, Tanzania. The processed CF contained(More)
Infants less than 6 months of age receiving foods other than breast milk are at a high risk of exposure to mycotoxins. We surveyed food intake and estimated the risk of exposures to aflatoxin and fumonisin mycotoxins for infants less than 6 months of age in Northern Tanzania. A total of 143 infants were progressively recruited and three follow-up visits(More)
BACKGROUND National estimates for the numbers of babies born small for gestational age and the comorbidity with preterm birth are unavailable. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age (term-SGA and preterm-SGA), and the relation to low birthweight (<2500 g), in 138 countries of low and middle income in(More)
BACKGROUND Babies with low birthweight (<2500 g) are at increased risk of early mortality. However, low birthweight includes babies born preterm and with fetal growth restriction, and not all these infants have a birthweight less than 2500 g. We estimated the neonatal and infant mortality associated with these two characteristics in low-income and(More)