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A procedure is described to calibrate three-dimensional eye position with a dual-search coil implant in rhesus monkeys using a two-field magnetic system. The method allows one to determine the sensitivity of the search coils taking into account the presence of d.c. offset voltages. The orientation of the implant on the eye relative to a space-fixed(More)
In five normal subjects, we analyzed uncalled for torsion (blips) during and after horizontal and vertical saccades. Torsion was defined as movement out of Listing's plane. During horizontal saccades in downward gaze the abducting eye extorted and the adducting eye intorted. The direction of the blips reversed in upward gaze. Peak torsional amplitudes (up(More)
In three rhesus monkeys three-dimensional eye positions were measured with the dual search coil technique. Recordings of spontaneous eye movements were made in the light and in the dark, with the monkeys in different static roll or pitch positions. Eye positions were expressed as rotation vectors. In all static positions eye rotation vectors were confined(More)
We have recorded eye, head, and upper arm rotations in five healthy human subjects using the three-dimensional search coil technique. Our measurements show that the coordination of eye and head movements during gaze shifts within +/- 25 deg relative to the forward direction is organized by restricting the rotatory trajectories of the two systems to almost(More)
Saccades are controlled by neurons in the brainstem reticular formation that receive input from the superior colliculus and cortex. Recently two quantitative models have been proposed for the role of the colliculus in the generation of three-dimensional eye movements. In order to test these models, three-dimensional eye movements were measured in the alert(More)
One of the signs of the cerebellar ocular motor syndrome is the inability to maintain horizontal and vertical fixation. Typically, in the presence of cerebellar atrophy, the eyes show horizontal gaze-evoked and vertical downbeat nystagmus. We investigated whether or not the cerebellar ocular motor syndrome also includes a torsional drift and, specifically,(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the accuracy of the bedside head impulse test (bHIT) by direct comparison with results from the quantitative head impulse test (qHIT) in the same subjects, and to investigate whether bHIT sensitivity and specificity changes with neuro-otological training. METHODS Video clips of horizontal bHIT to both sides were produced in patients(More)
The rotation axis for each of the six extraocular muscles was determined in four eyes from three perfused rhesus monkeys. Measurements of the locations of muscle insertions and origins were made in the stereotaxic reference frame with the x-y plane horizontal and the x-z plane sagittal. The computed rotation axes of the horizontal recti were close to being(More)
PURPOSE Most studies on blink-induced eye movements have been restricted to rotations about the horizontal and vertical axes. By additionally measuring rotation about the torsional axis, the authors investigated whether the three-dimensional rotation of the eye during the early phase of eyelid closure could be assigned to the action of a single extraocular(More)
The brain integrates sensory input from the otolith organs, the semicircular canals, and the somatosensory and visual systems to determine self-orientation relative to gravity. Only the otoliths directly sense the gravito-inertial force vector and therefore provide the major input for perceiving static head-roll relative to gravity, as measured by the(More)