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The anterior nares are the most important screening site of colonization with Staphylococcus aureus. We screened 2966 individuals for S. aureus carriage with swabs of both nares and throat. A total of 37.1% of persons were nasal carriers, and 12.8% were solely throat carriers. Screening of throat swabs significantly increases the sensitivity of detection(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate risk factors for severe outcomes in patients with seasonal and pandemic influenza. DESIGN Systematic review. STUDY SELECTION Observational studies reporting on risk factor-outcome combinations of interest in participants with influenza. Outcomes included death, ventilator support, admission to hospital, admission to an intensive(More)
BACKGROUND Lack of appropriate reporting of methodological details has previously been shown to distort risk of bias assessments in randomized controlled trials. The same might be true for observational studies. The goal of this study was to compare the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) assessment for risk of bias between reviewers and authors of cohort studies(More)
Concomitant use of immunosuppressive agents and antiretroviral drugs may lead to complex drug-drug interactions. The calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus is metabolized by cytochrome P-450 3A4 (encoded by the CYP3A4 gene) and is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (encoded by the ABCB1 gene). Both pathways can be inhibited by protease inhibitors (PIs). The reduction(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate outcomes following implementation of a checklist with criteria for switching from intravenous (iv) to oral antibiotics on unselected patients on two general medical wards. METHODS During a 12 month intervention study, a printed checklist of criteria for switching on the third day of iv treatment was placed in the medical charts. The(More)
BACKGROUND Postoperative infections, particularly surgical site infections (SSIs), cause significant morbidity and mortality. Probiotics or synbiotics are a potential prevention strategy. AIM To evaluate the efficacy of probiotics/synbiotics for reducing postoperative infection risk following abdominal surgery. METHODS We searched AMED, Central, CINAHL,(More)
BACKGROUND Approximately 25% of Staphylococcus aureus carriers have exclusive throat carriage. We aimed to identify the populations at risk for exclusive throat carriage to improve sensitivity to detect carriers. METHODS Four groups underwent nasal and throat screening for S. aureus. Three groups of individuals in the community (n = 2632) with different(More)
Data about the required duration of intravenous therapy for suppurative thrombophlebitis is lacking. Among 36 episodes of proven suppurative thrombophlebitis requiring hospital admission, no relapses occurred when treatment was given for >7 days intravenously and followed by oral therapy. A <4-week course of intravenous antibiotics may be sufficient.
Intra-abdominal infections (IAI) are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in high-risk patients. The cornerstones in the management of complicated IAIs are timely effective source control with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is important in the management of(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the credibility of authors' claims of subgroup effects using a representative sample of recently published randomised controlled trials. DESIGN Systematic review. DATA SOURCE Core clinical journals, as defined by the National Library of Medicine, in Medline. STUDY SELECTION Randomised controlled trials published in 2007. Using(More)