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The discovery of causal relationships between a set of observed variables is a fundamental problem in science. For continuous-valued data linear acyclic causal models with additive noise are often used because these models are well understood and there are well-known methods to fit them to data. In reality, of course, many causal relationships are more or(More)
Conditional independence testing is an important problem, especially in Bayesian network learning and causal discovery. Due to the curse of dimensionality, testing for conditional independence of continuous variables is particularly challenging. We propose a Kernel-based Conditional Independence test (KCI-test), by constructing an appropriate test statistic(More)
Motivated by causal inference problems, we propose a novel method for regression that minimizes the statistical dependence between regressors and residuals. The key advantage of this approach to regression is that it does not assume a particular distribution of the noise, i.e., it is non-parametric with respect to the noise distribution. We argue that the(More)
We consider two variables that are related to each other by an invertible function. While it has previously been shown that the dependence structure of the noise can provide hints to determine which of the two variables is the cause, we presently show that even in the de-terministic (noise-free) case, there are asymmetries that can be exploited for causal(More)
We define the problem " identity check " : Given a classical description of a quantum circuit, determine whether it is almost equivalent to the identity. Explicitly, the task is to decide whether the corresponding unitary is close to a complex multiple of the identity matrix with respect to the operator norm. We show that this problem is QMA-complete. A(More)
While conventional approaches to causal inference are mainly based on conditional (in)dependences, recent methods also account for the shape of (conditional) distributions. The idea is that the causal hypothesis " X causes Y " imposes that the marginal distribution P X and the conditional distribution P Y |X represent independent mechanisms of nature.(More)
Inferring the causal structure that links n observables is usually based upon detecting statistical dependences and choosing simple graphs that make the joint measure Markovian. Here we argue why causal inference is also possible when only single observations are present. We develop a theory how to generate causal graphs explaining similarities between(More)
The discovery of causal relationships from purely observational data is a fundamental problem in science. The most elementary form of such a causal discovery problem is to decide whether X causes Y or, alternatively, Y causes X, given joint observations of two variables X, Y. An example is to decide whether altitude causes temperature, or vice versa, given(More)
We propose a method that detects the true direction of time series, by fitting an autoregressive moving average model to the data. Whenever the noise is independent of the previous samples for one ordering of the observations, but dependent for the opposite ordering, we infer the former direction to be the true one. We prove that our method works in the(More)
We describe a causal learning method, which employs measuring the strength of statistical dependences in terms of the Hilbert-Schmidt norm of kernel-based cross-covariance operators. Following the line of the common faithfulness assumption of constraint-based causal learning, our approach assumes that a variable <i>Z</i> is likely to be a common effect of(More)