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Maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is contingent upon the dynamic equilibrium (fasted losses-fed gains) in protein turnover. Of all nutrients, the single amino acid leucine (Leu) possesses the most marked anabolic characteristics in acting as a trigger element for the initiation of protein synthesis. While the mechanisms by which Leu is 'sensed' have been(More)
BACKGROUND High flow nasal cannulae (HFNC) are small, thin, tapered binasal tubes that deliver oxygen or blended oxygen/air at gas flows of more than 1 L/min. HFNC are increasingly being used as a form of non-invasive respiratory support for preterm infants. OBJECTIVES To compare the safety and efficacy of HFNC with other forms of non-invasive respiratory(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Decisions to withdraw or withhold potentially life-sustaining treatment are common in intensive care and precede the majority of deaths. When families resist or oppose doctors' suggestions that it is time to stop treatment, it is often unclear what should be done. This review will summarize recent literature around futility judgements in(More)
BACKGROUND Death remains a common event in the neonatal intensive care unit, and often involves limitation or withdrawal of life sustaining treatment. OBJECTIVE To document changes in the causes of death and its management over the last two decades. METHODS An audit of infants dying in the neonatal intensive care unit was performed during two epochs(More)
One of the most contentious ethical issues in the neonatal intensive care unit is the withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment from infants who may otherwise survive. In practice, one of the most important factors influencing this decision is the prediction that the infant will be severely intellectually disabled. Most professional guidelines suggest that(More)
Predictions of poor prognosis for critically ill patients may become self-fulfilling if life-sustaining treatment or resuscitation is subsequently withheld on the basis of that prediction. This paper outlines the epistemic and normative problems raised by self-fulfilling prophecies (SFPs) in intensive care. Where predictions affect outcome, it can be(More)
To critically analyze physician-related variability in end-of-life decision-making in intensive care. An ethical analysis of factors contributing to physician-related variability in end-of-life decision-making. There is variability in decision-making about life support, both within and between intensive care units. Physician age, race, religion, attitude to(More)
Prenatally diagnosed abnormalities that are associated with death in the newborn period are often referred to as 'lethal malformations'. Yet, for many of the commonly described lethal malformations long-term survival is possible if supportive interventions are provided. In this paper we analyse and review fetal or congenital lethal abnormalities. The(More)
There are not enough solid organs available to meet the needs of patients with organ failure. Thousands of patients every year die on the waiting lists for transplantation. Yet there is one currently available, underutilized, potential source of organs. Many patients die in intensive care following withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment whose organs could(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to explore the attitudes of obstetricians in Australia, New Zealand and the UK towards prenatally diagnosed trisomy 18 (T18). METHOD Obstetricians were contacted by email and invited to participate in an anonymous electronic survey. RESULTS Survey responses were obtained from 1018/3717 (27%) practicing(More)