Dominic M. Walsh

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Although extensive data support a central pathogenic role for amyloid beta protein (Abeta) in Alzheimer's disease, the amyloid hypothesis remains controversial, in part because a specific neurotoxic species of Abeta and the nature of its effects on synaptic function have not been defined in vivo. Here we report that natural oligomers of human Abeta are(More)
Alzheimer's disease constitutes a rising threat to public health. Despite extensive research in cellular and animal models, identifying the pathogenic agent present in the human brain and showing that it confers key features of Alzheimer's disease has not been achieved. We extracted soluble amyloid-β protein (Aβ) oligomers directly from the cerebral cortex(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by decreased synapse density in hippocampus and neocortex, and synapse loss is the strongest anatomical correlate of the degree of clinical impairment. Although considerable evidence supports a causal role for the amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) in AD, a direct link between a specific form of Abeta and synapse loss has(More)
In Alzheimer's disease (AD), the impairment of declarative memory coincides with the accumulation of extracellular amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) and intraneuronal tau aggregates. Dementia severity correlates with decreased synapse density in hippocampus and cortex. Although numerous studies show that soluble Abeta oligomers inhibit hippocampal long-term(More)
Converging lines of evidence suggest that progressive accumulation of the amyloid beta-protein (A beta) plays a central role in the genesis of Alzheimer's disease, but it was long assumed that A beta had to be assembled into extracellular amyloid fibrils to exert its cytotoxic effects. Over the past decade, data have emerged from the use of synthetic A beta(More)
The mechanisms of action of human synthetic and naturally secreted cell-derived amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta)(1-42) on the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) were investigated in the medial perforant path to dentate granule cell synapses in hippocampal slices. Synthetic and cell-derived Abeta strongly inhibited high-frequency stimulation (HFS)-induced(More)
Protein aggregation is an established pathogenic mechanism in Alzheimer's disease, but little is known about the initiation of this process in vivo. Intracerebral injection of dilute, amyloid-beta (Abeta)-containing brain extracts from humans with Alzheimer's disease or beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice induced cerebral beta-amyloidosis(More)
A central unresolved problem in research on Alzheimer disease is the nature of the molecular entity causing dementia. Here we provide the first direct experimental evidence that a defined molecular species of the amyloid-β protein interferes with cognitive function. Soluble oligomeric forms of amyloid-β, including trimers and dimers, were both necessary and(More)
The accumulation of amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) in brain regions serving memory and cognition is a central pathogenic feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have shown that small soluble oligomers of human Abeta that are naturally secreted by cultured cells inhibit hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in vitro and in vivo and transiently impair the(More)
Alzheimer's disease is characterized by extensive cerebral amyloid deposition. Amyloid deposits associated with damaged neuropil and blood vessels contain abundant fibrils formed by the amyloid beta-protein (Abeta). Fibrils, both in vitro and in vivo, are neurotoxic. For this reason, substantial effort has been expended to develop therapeutic approaches to(More)