Dominic M Dwyer

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Human participants received unsupervised exposure to difficult-to-discriminate stimuli (e.g., A and A'), created with a morphing procedure from photographs of faces, before learning a discrimination between them. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that prior exposure enhanced later discrimination and that intermixed exposure (A, A', A, A'...) resulted in(More)
Negative symptoms of schizophrenia remain an unmet clinical need as they are common, persistent, respond poorly to existing treatments and lead to disability. Blunted affect, alogia, asociality, anhedonia and avolition are regarded as key negative symptoms despite DSM-IV-TR specifying a more limited range. The key to development of improved therapies is(More)
It is debated whether subregions within the medial temporal lobe (MTL), in particular the hippocampus (HC) and perirhinal cortex (PrC), play domain-sensitive roles in learning. In the present study, two patients with differing degrees of MTL damage were first exposed to pairs of highly similar scenes, faces, and dot patterns and then asked to make repeated(More)
Human participants received unsupervised exposure to difficult-to-discriminate chequerboard stimuli (e.g., AX and BX), before learning a discrimination between them. Experiment 1 demonstrated that prior exposure enhanced later discrimination and that intermixed exposure (AX, BX, AX, BX ...) resulted in better subsequent discrimination than did blocked(More)
It has recently been argued that rats engage in causal reasoning and they do so in a way that is consistent with Bayes net theories (Blaisdell, Sawa, Leising & Waldmann, 2006). This argument was based upon the finding that the tendency of cues to elicit approach to a food-well was reduced when their presentation was contingent on lever pressing. There is,(More)
Rats exposed to simultaneous compounds of 1 neutral flavor with dilute (2%) sucrose and a 2nd flavor with dilute (2%) maltodextrin subsequently consumed both flavors in preference to a 3rd flavor that was never paired with a palatable taste. Brief training exposure under ad lib food and water minimized the post-ingestive effects of nutrients, emphasizing(More)
Within-subjects procedures were used to assess the influence of stimulus comparison on perceptual learning in humans. In Experiment 1, participants received intermixed (A, A', A, A',…) or blocked (B, B,…, B', B',…) exposure to pairs of similar female faces. In a subsequent same/different discrimination task, participants were more accurate when the test(More)
Rats received habituation to either 2 compound flavors (AX and BY; the activation group) or a compound and an element alone (AX and Y; the habituation group). They also received additional presentations of Y alone either after (Experiment 1) or intermixed (Experiment 2) with habituation. In the habituation group, A had undergone habituation whereas B had(More)
Exposure to complex checkerboards (comprising a common background, e.g., X, with unique features, e.g., A-D, that are placed in particular locations on the background) improves discrimination between them (perceptual learning). Such stimuli have been used previously to probe human perceptual learning but these studies leave open the question of whether the(More)