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Although archaea, Gram-negative bacteria, and mammalian cells constitutively secrete membrane vesicles (MVs) as a mechanism for cell-free intercellular communication, this cellular process has been overlooked in Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we found for the first time that Gram-positive bacteria naturally produce MVs into the extracellular milieu. Further(More)
Occludin is phosphorylated on tyrosine residues during the oxidative stress-induced disruption of tight junction, and in vitro phosphorylation of occludin by c-Src attenuates its binding to ZO-1. In the present study mass spectrometric analyses of C-terminal domain of occludin identified Tyr-379 and Tyr-383 in chicken occludin as the phosphorylation sites,(More)
Blood plasma and serum contain factors that activate inwardly rectifying GIRK1/GIRK4 K+ channels in atrial myocytes via one or more non-atropine-sensitive receptors coupled to pertussis-toxin-sensitive G-proteins. This channel is also the target of muscarinic M(2) receptors activated by the physiological release of acetylcholine from parasympathetic nerve(More)
In order to better understand the role of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in physiology and pathophysiology, it is necessary to accurately determine the molecular species and amounts of LPA in biological samples. We have developed a stable-isotope dilution, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assay for the direct quantitative analysis of 1-acyl-LPA. This(More)
The immunologically detected neuropeptides methionine enkephalin (ME), substance P (SP), beta-endorphin (beta-End), and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) were purified from bovine corneal extracts by gradient, followed by isocratic, reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and characterized, after both chromatographic(More)
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is secreted from several different central nervous system (CNS) structures, and any changes in the CSF composition will accurately reflect pathological processes. Proteomics offers a comprehensive bird's eye view to analyze CSF proteins at a systems level. This paper reviews the variety of analytical methods that have been used for(More)
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has frequently been extensively studied to explore several different central nervous system (CNS) disorders because it contains proteins, enzymes, hormones, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters that play critical regulatory roles in many different physiological processes. Individual neuropeptidergic systems in CSF have been studied.(More)
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced by the chorioid plexus in the ventricles. It surrounds the brain and bone marrow, and reflects several different disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). Proteomics has been used to analyze CSF in order to discover disease-associated proteins and to elucidate the basic molecular mechanisms that either cause, or(More)
BACKGROUND A human proteome is relatively dynamic compared with its corresponding genome. Our aim was to study the heterogeneity of a human pituitary proteome as a function of gender, age, and race. METHODS Pituitary control tissues (n = 8) were used to extract proteins; each control tissue was analyzed (n = 3-5) with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis(More)