Learn More
Tyrosinase, the enzyme that controls the synthesis of melanin, is a unique product of melanocytes. Normal and malignant human melanocytes grown in culture were used to study the factors that regulate the expression of tyrosinase. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that newly synthesized tyrosinase appeared as a protein with an apparent molecular weight(More)
Osmolytes are small organic molecules accumulated by cells in response to osmotic stress. Although their effects on protein stability have been studied, there has been no systematic documentation of their influence on RNA. Here, the effects of nine osmolytes on the secondary and tertiary structure stabilities of six RNA structures of differing complexity(More)
The catalytic determinants for the cleavage and ligation reactions mediated by the hairpin ribozyme are integral to the polyribonucleotide chain. We describe experiments that place G8, a critical guanosine, at the active site, and point to an essential role in catalysis. Cross-linking and modeling show that formation of a catalytic complex is accompanied by(More)
To form a catalytically active complex, the essential nucleotides of the hairpin ribozyme, embedded within the internal loops of the two domains, must interact with one another. Little is known about the nature of these essential interdomain interactions. In the work presented here, we have used recent topographical constraints and other biochemical data in(More)
Many RNA tertiary structures are stable in the presence of monovalent ions alone. To evaluate the degree to which ions at or near the surfaces of such RNAs contribute to stability, the salt-dependent stability of a variety of RNA structures was measured with each of the five group I cations. The stability of hairpin secondary structures and a pseudoknot(More)
The two domains of the hairpin ribozyme-substrate complex, usually depicted as straight structural elements, must interact with one another in order to form an active conformation. Little is known about the internal geometry of the individual domains in an active docked complex. Using various crosslinking and structural approaches in conjunction with(More)
The gusmps/gusmps mouse is a model of the human lysosomal storage disease mucopolysaccharidosis type VII due to deficient beta-glucuronidase activity. We now report behavioural abnormalities associated with this single gene defect. In grooming, a developmentally regulated and genetically based activity, the mutant mice spent 1-5% of the normal time for body(More)
The stabilization of RNA tertiary structures by ions is well known, but the neutral osmolyte trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) can also effectively stabilize RNA tertiary structure. To begin to understand the physical basis for the effects of TMAO on RNA, we have quantitated the TMAO-induced stabilization of five RNAs with known structures. So-called m values,(More)
RNA secondary and tertiary structures are strongly stabilized by added salts, and a quantitative thermodynamic analysis of the relevant ion-RNA interactions is an important aspect of the RNA folding problem. Because of long-range electrostatic forces, an RNA perturbs the distribution of both cations and anions throughout a large volume. Binding formalisms(More)