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Chronic inflammation is a secondary reaction of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and may contribute to disease progression. To examine whether immunosuppressant therapies could benefit dystrophic patients, we analyzed the effects of cyclosporine A (CsA) on a dystrophic mouse model. Mdx mice were treated with 10 mg/kg of CsA for 4 to 8 weeks throughout a period(More)
The role of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha or cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) eicosanoids in dystrophinopathies has been evaluated by chronically treating (4-8 weeks) adult dystrophic mdx mice with the anti-TNF-alpha etanercept (0.5 mg/kg) or the COX-2 inhibitor meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg). Throughout the treatment period the mdx mice underwent a protocol of(More)
BN 82270 is a membrane-permeable prodrug of a chimeric compound (BN 82204) dually acting as calpain inhibitor and anti-oxidant. Acute in vivo injection of dystrophic mdx mice (30 mg/kg, s.c.) fully counteracted calpain overactivity in diaphragm. A chronic 4-6 weeks administration significantly prevented in vivo the fore limb force drop occurring in mdx mice(More)
In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) metabolic and structural alterations of the central nervous system are described. Here, we investigated in the brain of 10 mdx mice and in five control ones, the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and we correlated it with the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and vascular(More)
In this study we purposed an alternative method to study the angiogenic and invasive potential of neuroblastoma cell suspensions implanted on the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) surface. Neuroblastoma cells were seeded in Matrigel and thereafter the suspension was pipetted onto the CAM surface at day 8 of incubation inside a silicon ring(More)
In order to ascertain whether the alterations of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) seen in adult dystrophic mdx-mice [Glia 42 (2003) 235], a human model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), are developmentally established and correlated with other dystrophin isoforms which are localized at the glial-vascular interface, we used immunocytochemistry to(More)
Aminoglycosides force read through of premature stop codon mutations and introduce new mutation-specific gene-corrective strategies in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. A chronic treatment with gentamicin (32 mg/kg/daily i.p., 8-12 weeks) was performed in exercised mdx mice with the dual aim to clarify the dependence on dystrophin of the functional, biochemical(More)
Nerve growth factor (NGF), a neurotrophin that plays a crucial role in promoting neurotrophic and neurotropic effects in sympathetic neurons, has recently been identified as a novel angiogenic molecule, which exerts a variety of effects in the cardiovascular system and on endothelial cells. In fact, NGF may contribute to maintenance, survival, and function(More)
Microvascular density (MVD) counting protocols have become the morphological gold standard to assess the neovasculature in human tumors. This method requires the use of specific markers to vascular endothelium and of immunohistochemical procedures to visualize microvessels. MVD determined in primary tumors is significantly associated with metastasis and(More)
In this study, we investigated the angiogenic response induced by acellular aortic matrices implanted in vivo onto the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), a useful model for such investigation. Results showed that acellular matrices were able to induce a strong angiogenic response comparable to that of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), a(More)