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In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) metabolic and structural alterations of the central nervous system are described. Here, we investigated in the brain of 10 mdx mice and in five control ones, the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and we correlated it with the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and vascular(More)
Increased angiogenesis and an altered blood-brain barrier have been reported in the brain of dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse, an experimental model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. To further elucidate the mechanisms underlying angiogenesis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, in this study we evaluated whether nerve growth factor (NGF) and nerve growth factor(More)
Aminoglycosides force read through of premature stop codon mutations and introduce new mutation-specific gene-corrective strategies in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. A chronic treatment with gentamicin (32 mg/kg/daily i.p., 8-12 weeks) was performed in exercised mdx mice with the dual aim to clarify the dependence on dystrophin of the functional, biochemical(More)
The role of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha or cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) eicosanoids in dystrophinopathies has been evaluated by chronically treating (4-8 weeks) adult dystrophic mdx mice with the anti-TNF-alpha etanercept (0.5 mg/kg) or the COX-2 inhibitor meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg). Throughout the treatment period the mdx mice underwent a protocol of(More)
In order to ascertain whether the alterations of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) seen in adult dystrophic mdx-mice [Glia 42 (2003) 235], a human model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), are developmentally established and correlated with other dystrophin isoforms which are localized at the glial-vascular interface, we used immunocytochemistry to(More)
In this study, we investigated the involvement of dystrophin-associated proteins (DAPs) and their relationship with the perivascular basement membrane in the brains of mdx mice and controls at the age of 2 months. We analyzed (1) the expression of glial DAPs α-β-dystroglycan (DG), α-syntrophin, aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel, Kir 4.1 and dystrophin(More)
BN 82270 is a membrane-permeable prodrug of a chimeric compound (BN 82204) dually acting as calpain inhibitor and anti-oxidant. Acute in vivo injection of dystrophic mdx mice (30 mg/kg, s.c.) fully counteracted calpain overactivity in diaphragm. A chronic 4-6 weeks administration significantly prevented in vivo the fore limb force drop occurring in mdx mice(More)
In this study, for the first time, we investigated about the localization of VEGF-A, VEGFR-2 and Ang-2 in the choroid plexuses of the adult mouse by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Results showed that VEGF-A stained epithelial cells, while anti-VEGFR-2 and -Ang-2 antibodies stained endothelial cells. These data suggest that Ang-2, converting blood(More)
Brain edema and severe alterations of the glial and endothelial cells have recently been demonstrated in the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse, an experimental model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and an increase in microvessel density in patients affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy has also been shown. In order to further elucidate the mechanisms(More)
Microvascular density (MVD) counting protocols have become the morphological gold standard to assess the neovasculature in human tumors. This method requires the use of specific markers to vascular endothelium and of immunohistochemical procedures to visualize microvessels. MVD determined in primary tumors is significantly associated with metastasis and(More)